Black carbon curriculum
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Black Carbon Curriculum. Lesson 1: Black Carbon. Rev 10A Kali Basman , Jessa Ellenburg and John Birks. Learning Objectives. At the end of this lesson students will be able to: Define and describe Black Carbon. Explain the main Impacts and Effects of Black Carbon.

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Black carbon curriculum

Black Carbon Curriculum

Lesson 1:

Black Carbon

Rev 10A

Kali Basman, Jessa Ellenburg and John Birks


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

At the end of this lesson students will be able to:

  • Define and describe Black Carbon.

  • Explain the main Impacts and Effects of Black Carbon.

  • Identify Naturaland Anthropogenic Sourcesof Black Carbon and name two examples of each.

  • Discover the Technology and Policy that can help mitigate Black Carbon.


Black carbon curriculum1

Black Carbon Curriculum

Part 1:

Define and Describe

Black Carbon


Black carbon

Black Carbon

Black Carbon:Product of incomplete combustion consisting of amorphous carbon. Commonly known as soot.

Combustion: The process of the burning of fuels in the presence of oxygen.

Incomplete Combustion: Occurs when there is not enough oxygen to allow the fuel to react completely, producing harmful chemicals such as black carbon.


Black carbon curriculum2

Black Carbon Curriculum

Part 2:

Explain the Main Impacts and Effects of Black Carbon


Black carbon in the atmosphere

Black Carbon in the Atmosphere

Impacts and Effects of Black Carbon: These little particles have the ability to change climate and affect human and environmental health.

-Albedo Effect

-Global Warming

-Melting Snow/Ice

-Pollution/Visibility

-Human Health

Black Carbon smoke billowing out of a factory in Hampshire, England


Black carbon in the atmosphere1

Black Carbon in the Atmosphere

Impacts and Effects of Black Carbon:

-Albedo Effect

-Global Warming

-Melting Snow/Ice

-Pollution/Visibility

-Human Health


Albedo

Albedo

Albedo : The amount of energy reflected by a surface, measured on a scale from 0-1. The scale refers to the percent of energy that is reflected, with 0 meaning no energy is reflected and 1 meaning 100% of the energy is reflected.

Pure Snow: High Albedo, Reflects Sun and cools air

Dirty Snow: Low Albedo, Absorbs sun and and warms air

Albedo=Reflectivity


Albedo scale

Albedo Scale

Green Grass: Medium Albedo

Reflects 25% of sunlight, absorbs 75%

.80

1

0

.04

.25

Pure Snow: High Albedo

Reflects 80% of sunlight

Dark Forest: Low Albedo

Absorbs 96% of sunlight


Black carbon in the atmosphere2

Black Carbon in the Atmosphere

Impacts and Effects of Black Carbon:

-Albedo Effect

-Global Warming

-Melting Snow/Ice

-Pollution/Visibility

-Human Health


Global warming

Global Warming

Most Aerosols = High Albedo

-Shiny (like a mirror)

-Reflects and scatters sunlight

-Cooling effect

Black Carbon Aerosol = Low Albedo

-Dark and dull

-Absorbs sunlight

-Warming effect

Black Carbon in the Atmosphere: Absorbs sunlight and generates heat, warming

the air.


Black carbon in the atmosphere3

Black Carbon in the Atmosphere

Impacts and Effects of Black Carbon:

-Albedo Effect

-Global Warming

-Melting Snow/Ice

-Pollution/Visibility

-Human Health


Melting ice and snow

Melting Ice and Snow

Black Soot deposited on Tibetan Glaciers


Melting ice and snow the ice albedo feedback

Melting Ice and Snow: The Ice-Albedo Feedback

Lowered Albedo

Black Carbon in Snow/Ice: Lowers albedo, absorbing more sunlight, causing snow and ice to melt. Known as the Ice-Albedo Feedback.

More Melting

More Sunlight Absorbed


Ice albedo feedback video

Ice-Albedo Feedback Video

NASA: Ice Albedo and Glacial Melt


Melting ice and snow1

Melting Ice and Snow

The two most sensitive areas for black carbon:


Black carbon in the atmosphere4

Black Carbon in the Atmosphere

Impacts and Effects of Black Carbon:

-Albedo Effect

-Global Warming

-Melting Snow/Ice

-Pollution/Visibility

-Human Health


Pollution visibility

Pollution/Visibility

Smog Pollution in Beijing, China

SMOG = SMOKE + FOG


Black carbon in the atmosphere5

Black Carbon in the Atmosphere

Impacts and Effects of Black Carbon:

-Albedo Effect

-Global Warming

-Melting Snow/Ice

-Pollution/Visibility

-Human Health


Human health

Human Health

The Great Smog killed between 4,000 and 12,000 people. 100,000 residents became ill due to emissions, including black carbon.


Human health1

Human Health

The health effects of black carbon include asthma, lung cancer, cardiovascular problems, birth defects and premature deaths.


Black carbon curriculum3

Black Carbon Curriculum

Part 3:

Identify Naturaland Anthropogenic Sourcesof Black Carbon


Black carbon emissions by region

Black Carbon Emissions by Region

Black Carbon Emissions for 2000, in Gigagrams (T. Bond 2007)


Anthropogenic black carbon sources

Anthropogenic Black Carbon Sources


Agricultural burning

Agricultural Burning

Major source of Black Carbon

Satellite picture of slash and burn agriculture along the Xingu River, Brazil


Cookstoves

Cookstoves

Inefficient Cookstoves: Major source of Black Carbon


Natural sources of black carbon

Natural Sources of Black Carbon

Natural Sources

Natural Sources of Black Carbon include erupting volcanoes, sea salt, and wildfires.


Transport

Transport

Global Transport of Black Carbon


Black carbon curriculum4

Black Carbon Curriculum

Part 4:

Discover the Technology and Policy that Can Help Mitigate Black Carbon


Policy

Policy

  • UK Clean Air Act 1956

  • US Clean Air Act 1963

  • Regulation, Monitoring Emissions

  • Black Carbon Reduction Act


Policy1

Policy

There are a number of recommended policy actions that would help reduce black carbon emissions, including:

  • Regulating crop burning

  • Banning slash and burn techniques

  • Limiting idling of ships at port

  • Requiring emissions testing for vehicles

  • Adding particle traps for vehicles that filter emissions

  • Requiring the use of cleaner fuels

  • Limiting the use of biomass burning in urban and non-urban areas

  • Requiring permits to operate industrial or power plants that limit black carbon emissions


Technology

Technology

A clean burning, efficient cookstove can reduce smoke and emissions by 80%


Technology1

Technology

Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF): One method for filtering diesel exhaust to reduce black carbon. As the exhaust is forced through the filters’ cell walls, the soot is trapped. At high temps, the trapped soot is burned up.


Ways to reduce black carbon

Ways to Reduce Black Carbon

  • Some strategies include:

    • Using clean diesel technologies for engines.

    • Taking mass transit or riding a bike whenever possible.

    • Switching to safe, efficient cookstoves.

    • Using sustainable agriculture that reduces crop burning and slash and burn methods.

    • Reducing trash-burning practices.

    • Supporting strong black carbon regulations.

    • Educating people on the issue of black carbon!


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