Black Carbon Curriculum. Lesson 1: Black Carbon. Rev 10A Kali Basman , Jessa Ellenburg and John Birks. Learning Objectives. At the end of this lesson students will be able to: Define and describe Black Carbon. Explain the main Impacts and Effects of Black Carbon.
Kali Basman, Jessa Ellenburg and John Birks
At the end of this lesson students will be able to:
Define and Describe
Black Carbon:Product of incomplete combustion consisting of amorphous carbon. Commonly known as soot.
Combustion: The process of the burning of fuels in the presence of oxygen.
Incomplete Combustion: Occurs when there is not enough oxygen to allow the fuel to react completely, producing harmful chemicals such as black carbon.
Explain the Main Impacts and Effects of Black Carbon
Impacts and Effects of Black Carbon: These little particles have the ability to change climate and affect human and environmental health.
Black Carbon smoke billowing out of a factory in Hampshire, England
Albedo : The amount of energy reflected by a surface, measured on a scale from 0-1. The scale refers to the percent of energy that is reflected, with 0 meaning no energy is reflected and 1 meaning 100% of the energy is reflected.
Pure Snow: High Albedo, Reflects Sun and cools air
Dirty Snow: Low Albedo, Absorbs sun and and warms air
Green Grass: Medium Albedo
Reflects 25% of sunlight, absorbs 75%
Pure Snow: High Albedo
Reflects 80% of sunlight
Dark Forest: Low Albedo
Absorbs 96% of sunlight
Most Aerosols = High Albedo
-Shiny (like a mirror)
-Reflects and scatters sunlight
Black Carbon Aerosol = Low Albedo
-Dark and dull
Black Carbon in the Atmosphere: Absorbs sunlight and generates heat, warming
Black Soot deposited on Tibetan Glaciers
Black Carbon in Snow/Ice: Lowers albedo, absorbing more sunlight, causing snow and ice to melt. Known as the Ice-Albedo Feedback.
More Sunlight Absorbed
NASA: Ice Albedo and Glacial Melt
The two most sensitive areas for black carbon:
Smog Pollution in Beijing, China
SMOG = SMOKE + FOG
The Great Smog killed between 4,000 and 12,000 people. 100,000 residents became ill due to emissions, including black carbon.
The health effects of black carbon include asthma, lung cancer, cardiovascular problems, birth defects and premature deaths.
Identify Naturaland Anthropogenic Sourcesof Black Carbon
Black Carbon Emissions for 2000, in Gigagrams (T. Bond 2007)
Major source of Black Carbon
Satellite picture of slash and burn agriculture along the Xingu River, Brazil
Inefficient Cookstoves: Major source of Black Carbon
Natural Sources of Black Carbon include erupting volcanoes, sea salt, and wildfires.
Global Transport of Black Carbon
Discover the Technology and Policy that Can Help Mitigate Black Carbon
There are a number of recommended policy actions that would help reduce black carbon emissions, including:
A clean burning, efficient cookstove can reduce smoke and emissions by 80%
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF): One method for filtering diesel exhaust to reduce black carbon. As the exhaust is forced through the filters’ cell walls, the soot is trapped. At high temps, the trapped soot is burned up.