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True Performance. Pro. EFB. PRODUCT FEATURES & USER INTERFACE. HOW & WHY OF PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS. A look at methods for calculating performance. The good, the bad and the ugly. What does this presentation cover?. CAVU Companies. Who. Founded 1982 Privately held

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slide2

PRODUCT FEATURES & USER INTERFACE

HOW & WHY OF PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS

A look at methods for calculating performance

The good, the bad and the ugly

What does this presentation cover?

slide3

CAVU Companies

Who

Founded 1982

Privately held

Located in upstate NY

James Deuvall

Founder/CEO

Flew part 135 for ExecAir

Sim Instructor

“Aircraft Performance, Myths & Methods”

slide4

The overriding issue regarding performance is:

Weight

Weight = Time

Weight = Money

Weight = Expectation

Weight = Safety

Why

single obstacle
--Single Obstacle

Obstacle Gradient

Obstacle

How we’re taught performance

slide7

Net Gradient

Obstacle Gradient

35ft

Obstacle

NET VERSUS GROSS

From the perspective of the aircraft and AFM

Gross Gradient

slide8

Net Takeoff Flight Path

Step #1

Published DP

Real Life ?

Obstacle Identification

Surface (OIS)

slide9

35ft

PansOps SID (or ODP)

TERPS vs Pans-Ops

DP Gross Gradient

slide10

.8%

35ft

PansOps SID (or ODP)

TERPS vs Pans-Ops

DP Gross Gradient

Net Gradient (OIS)

slide11

.8%

Assume to be Terrain

35ft

PansOps SID (or ODP)

TERPS vs Pans-Ops

Gross Gradient

35ft

Net Gradient

70ft

slide12

.8%

Assume to be Terrain

35ft

Assume to be Terrain

TERPS

TERPS vs Pans-Ops

DP Gross Gradient

DP Gross Gradient

24% of gross gradient

Net Gradient (OIS)

Net Gradient or OIS

At runway surface

Pans-Ops

slide14

AC 120-76B

  • Type B applications must not extrapolate or project results not represented by the AFM-approved data point\'s envelop of conditions including, pressure altitude, temperature and/or weight [Par 10 (e)(4)(f)]
  • Creation of a new algorithmic method to replace AFM data is not allowed in Type B applications [Par 10 (e)(4)(g)]
  • Type B algorithms must adhere to the same data methodology as the AFM-approved data [Par 10 (e)(4)(g)]
  • For performance, Type B applications, must represent net climb gradient with considerations including, but not limited to, level-off, acceleration, transitions and engine takeoff power time limits. [Par 10 (e)(4)(f)]
  • Type B applications must accurately address engine inoperative gradients and obstacle clearance plane and weight limits. [Par 10 (e)(4)(f)]
  • Transition from airport area performance to enroute climb performance and obstacle clearance must be addressed. [Par 10 (e)(4)(f)]
  • Type B applications are suitable only insofar as they accurately reproduce the paper AFM data. [Par 10 (e)(4)(f)]
slide17

1870/31000 = 6.03%

1870

Required

6.6%

31000

slide20

“We use runway analysis, and all of that has been taken care of. It allows us to depart under conditions we couldn’t before.”

briefing differences
Briefing Differences

EFB-PRO

  • Continue the DP
  • Pitch to V2
  • Climb to indicated altitude
  • Level-off, cleanup the aircraft, accelerate to Vfto
  • Adjust N1
  • Continue Climb to safe altitude
briefing differences1

Any Runway Analysis

  • Decide which DP to select
Briefing Differences
  • Reno 16
  • 16L
  • 16LDP
  • 16LDP1
  • 16LDP2
  • 16R
  • 16RDP
  • 16RDP1
  • 16RDP2
briefing differences2

Any Runway Analysis

  • Decide which DP to select
  • Discuss the DP special requirements
Briefing Differences
briefing differences3

Any Runway Analysis

  • Decide which DP to select
  • Discuss the DP special requirements
  • Enter special DP manually into FMS #2 and verify
Briefing Differences
briefing differences4

Any Runway Analysis

  • Decide which DP to select
  • Discuss the DP special requirements
  • Enter special DP manually into FMS #2 and verify
  • Discuss how to switch over FMS #1 to #2, (switch-over delay)
Briefing Differences
briefing differences5

Any Runway Analysis

  • Decide which DP to select
  • Discuss the DP special requirements
  • Enter special DP manually into FMS #2 and verify
  • Discuss how to switch over FMS #1 to #2, (switch-over delay)
  • Discuss crosswind effect (particularly heading vectors)
Briefing Differences
briefing differences6

Any Runway Analysis

  • Decide which DP to select
  • Discuss the DP special requirements
  • Enter special DP manually into FMS #2 and verify
  • Discuss how to switch over FMS #1 to #2, (switch-over delay)
  • Discuss crosswind effect (particularly heading vectors)
  • Calculate V speeds & discuss variances
Briefing Differences

Vtire

Vmbe

V1min

Vmcg

V1

V2

Vr

V2

Vfr

Vfto

Venr

Vref

Vapp

briefing differences7

Any Runway Analysis

  • Decide which DP to select
  • Discuss the DP special requirements
  • Enter special DP manually into FMS #2 and verify
  • Discuss how to switch over FMS #1 to #2, (switch-over delay)
  • Discuss crosswind effect (particularly heading vectors)
  • Calculate V speeds & discuss variances
  • Adjust level-off altitude, if any, for temperature. Be aware of overrides
Briefing Differences
briefing differences8

Any Runway Analysis

  • Decide which DP to select
  • Discuss the DP special requirements
  • Enter special DP manually into FMS #2 and verify
  • Discuss how to switch over FMS #1 to #2, (switch-over delay)
  • Discuss crosswind effect (particularly heading vectors)
  • Calculate V speeds & discuss variances
  • Adjust level-off altitude, if any, for temperature. Be aware of overrides
  • When to adjust N1
Briefing Differences
briefing differences9

Any Runway Analysis

  • Decide which DP to select
  • Discuss the DP special requirements
  • Enter special DP manually into FMS #2 and verify
  • Discuss how to switch over FMS #1 to #2, (switch-over delay)
  • Discuss crosswind effect (particularly heading vectors)
  • Calculate V speeds & discuss variances
  • Adjust level-off altitude, if any, for temperature. Be aware of overrides
  • When to adjust N1
  • Discuss hold, entry and bank angle, automate or hand-fly
Briefing Differences
briefing differences10

Any Runway Analysis

  • Decide which DP to select
  • Discuss the DP special requirements
  • Enter special DP manually into FMS #2 and verify
  • Discuss how to switch over FMS #1 to #2, (switch-over delay)
  • Discuss crosswind effect (particularly heading vectors)
  • Calculate V speeds & discuss variances
  • Adjust level-off altitude, if any, for temperature. Be aware of overrides
  • When to adjust N1
  • Discuss hold, entry and bank angle, automate or hand-fly
  • Discuss what to do if engine loss is after airborne or turn
Briefing Differences
briefing differences11

Any Runway Analysis

  • Decide which DP to select
  • Discuss the DP special requirements
  • Enter special DP manually into FMS #2 and verify
  • Discuss how to switch over FMS #1 to #2, (switch-over delay)
  • Discuss crosswind effect (particularly heading vectors)
  • Calculate V speeds & discuss variances
  • Adjust level-off altitude, if any, for temperature. Be aware of overrides
  • When to adjust N1
  • Discuss hold, entry and bank angle, automate or hand-fly
  • Discuss what to do if engine loss is after airborne or turn
  • Adjust system & meteorological effects
Briefing Differences
briefing differences12

Any Runway Analysis

  • Decide which DP to select
  • Discuss the DP special requirements
  • Enter special DP manually into FMS #2 and verify
  • Discuss how to switch over FMS #1 to #2, (switch-over delay)
  • Discuss crosswind effect (particularly heading vectors)
  • Calculate V speeds & discuss variances
  • Adjust level-off altitude, if any, for temperature. Be aware of overrides
  • When to adjust N1
  • Discuss hold, entry and bank angle, automate or hand-fly
  • Discuss what to do if engine loss is after airborne or turn
  • Adjust system & meteorological effects
  • What to do after the hold
Briefing Differences
briefing differences13

Any Runway Analysis

  • Decide which DP to select
  • Discuss the DP special requirements
  • Enter special DP manually into FMS #2 and verify
  • Discuss how to switch over FMS #1 to #2, (switch-over delay)
  • Discuss crosswind effect (particularly heading vectors)
  • Calculate V speeds & discuss variances
  • Adjust level-off altitude, if any, for temperature. Be aware of overrides
  • When to adjust N1
  • Discuss hold, entry and bank angle, automate or hand-fly
  • Discuss what to do if engine loss is after airborne or turn
  • Adjust system & meteorological effects
  • What to do after the hold
Briefing Differences

EFB-PRO

  • Continue the DP
  • Pitch to V2
  • Climb to indicated altitude
  • Level-off, cleanup the aircraft, accelerate to Vfto
  • Adjust N1
  • Continue Climb to safe altitude
slide44

Runway Analysis

  • is not a “pet rock” solution.
  • does not provide climb gradient clearance.
    • provides 35’ clearance within a narrow lateral/vertical corridor.
  • does not necessarily terminate in the enroute structure.
    • terminates in a holding pattern not likely where ATC is expecting you to show up on radar.
  • does routinely suspend the Net Takeoff Flight Path profile of the AFM
    • (ie “Do not level off”, 25° banks, turns with OEI at 50 AGL, etc)
  • is a logistical challenge
    • education, proving flights, training, currency, crew tracking
  • is NOT a
slide46

Runway Analysis Musts….

Discard the idea that “special procedures” can be used as routine departures.

Approach RA as an increased risk procedure that must be justified.

Limit “escape procedures” to manageable number.

Flight test the procedures. (the airlines do)

Ask questions. (How can we deviate from the AFM?)

Develop and adhere to strict simulator training to proficiency standards.

Develop and adhere to track-able crew matching.

Develop and adhere to strict briefing methods.

slide47

EFB-Pro for iPad / iPhone

No Internet Required

Aircraft Specific Data

All Aircraft Available on Device

Weather integration

W&B Integration

International Airport database

One-click Updating

What

On Device Resource Library

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