The large animal industry
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The Large Animal Industry. The Meat Industry. Each year the average person in this country consumes 97 pounds of beef and veal, 64 pounds of pork, and 90 pounds of poultry. The Meat Industry. Very few nations in the world even come close to us in the per capita consumption of meat.

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The Large Animal Industry

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The large animal industry

The Large Animal Industry


The meat industry

The Meat Industry

Each year the average person in this country consumes 97 pounds of beef and veal, 64 pounds of pork, and 90 pounds of poultry


The meat industry1

The Meat Industry

Very few nations in the world even come close to us in the per capita consumption of meat.


The meat industry2

The meat industry

Our land is well suited for the production of animals.

Americans spend a small portion of their income on food when compared with the rest of the world.


The meat industry3

The meat industry

Critics say Americans are wasteful in feeding several pounds of feed to animals in return for a pound of meat. Grains fed to animals could be better used to feed people.


The meat industry4

The meat industry

Producers argue that the land on which animals are grazed could be used for little else. Almost half of the land in this country is unsuitable for raising crops.


The meat industry5

The meat industry

Grains used for fattening livestock are not considered good for human consumption


The meat industry6

The meat industry

Agriculture animals also make use of by-products for feed.


The meat industry7

The meat industry

Meat is very dense in nutrients, a pound of meat may equal or surpass the nutritive content of the feed that produced it. Meat is among the most nutritionally complete food that we eat.


The beef industry

The beef industry

Over three quarters of the cash receipts for marketing of meat animals come from the sale of beef.

The average size beef herd is around 100 head.


The beef industry1

The beef industry

In the US there are over forty different breeds as well as many crosses of these breeds.


The beef industry2

The beef Industry

The breed produced may be selected on many different criteria:


The beef industry3

The beef Industry

disease resistance, heat tolerance, mothering ability, feed efficiency, size, temperament, or color.


The beef industry4

The beef industry

Breeds of beef cattle are broken into three categories or groups


British

British-

Angus, Hereford, Shorthorn, these were the first breeds brought into this country, they represent the largest segment of the beef industry.


Continental european

Continental European

Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Chianina, desired for their size and ability to grow


Zebu breeds

Zebu Breeds

Scientifically classified as Bos indicus, the most common type of Zebu is the Braham.


Zebu breeds1

Zebu Breeds

Other breeds developed form this line include; Brangus, Simbrah, Santa Gertrudis and Beefmaster.


4 major segments

4 Major Segments:

purebred operations

cow-calf operations

stocker operations

feedlot operations


Purebred operations

Purebred operations

Purpose is to produce seed stock cattle. These cattle are used as the dams and sires of the calves that will be grown to market weight.


Purebred operations1

Purebred operations

Growing purebred stock allows breeders to concentrate on improving an accentuating the advantages of a particular breed.


Cow calf operations

Cow-Calf operations:

Most calves produced are crossbreeds from purebred parents of different breeds.


Cow calf operations1

Cow-Calf operations:

Much of this industry is centered in the southern and western states, however, cow-calf operations are found all across the country.


Cow calf operations2

Cow-Calf operations:

In the west it is common to leave cows on free range-not fenced in until calving, at weaning time all stock is rounded up for the calves to be sold.


Cow calf operations3

Cow-Calf operations

Calves are usually sold at weaning weight, around 500 pounds. Buyers prefer calves that have been castrated and vaccinated and are in good condition.


Stocker operations

Stocker operations:

Provide a step between the weaning of calves and the finishing or fattening of the animals prior to slaughter.


Stocker operations1

Stocker operations

Weaned calves are placed on pasture and fed a ration to allow for skeletal and muscular growth. Before calves are sold to a feedlot for finishing they must be physically mature.


Feedlot operations

Feedlot operations:

Many feedlot operators are also stockers. Final phase before the animals are sent to slaughter.


Feedlot operations1

Feedlot operations

Animals are fed a highly concentrated ration which is designed to put the proper amount of fat cover on the animals.


Feedlot operations2

Feedlot operations

Producers usually want sufficient fat cover to allow the animals to grade low choice.


Feedlot operation

Feedlot operation:

Feedlots range in size from feeding fewer than 100 head to those feeding thousands of head each year.


Feedlot operation1

Feedlot operation

When animals reach the proper degree of finish, they are sold to slaughter. Usually around 18 to 24 months, weighing 800 to 1500 pounds depending on breed and body type.


The pork industry

The Pork Industry

At one time in this country, most people on farms raised hogs. The animals required relatively little space and fit well into most enterprises as a sideline.


The pork industry1

The Pork Industry

Gestation period of a sow is short, several pigs are born in each litter.


The pork industry2

The Pork Industry

Time required to build up a herd of hogs is short compared to most other agricultural animals.


The pork industry3

The Pork Industry

Hogs were once raised to produce fat which was rendered into lard.


The pork industry4

The Pork Industry

Lard was used in cooking and before petroleum based products was the basic ingredient in a variety of products from lubricants to cosmetics and soap


The pork industry5

The Pork Industry

Since 1950 hogs have been produced mainly for meat. Per capita consumption of pork increased. Producers have developed hogs that are much leaner than their ancestors.


The pork industry6

The Pork Industry

As a pork producer, the US ranks behind Asia and Europe.


The pork industry7

The Pork Industry

Pork production and consumption rank second to beef in the US. Pork is distributed throughout the country. There are religious groups that do not eat pork.


The pork industry8

The Pork Industry

Popular breeds of swine in the U.S. are categorized as mother or sire breeds.


The pork industry9

The Pork Industry

Mother breeds include: Landrace and Yorkshire, sire breeds are Duroc and Hampshire.

Most hogs are crosses of the mother and sire breeds.


2 phases of industry

2 phases of industry:

Farrowing- where sows give birth to litters of pigs. Sows are usually kept in farrowing crates to prevent injury to the piglets by the sow.


2 phases of industry1

2 phases of industry

Finishing- taking feeder pigs to market weight.


The pork industry10

The Pork Industry

Many producers use confinement systems. Pigs are weaned and grouped with other of the same age and size. The animals are kept in pens rather than running loose.


The pork industry11

The Pork Industry

Hogs are marketed at about 20 weeks usually weighing 220-260 pounds.


The pork industry12

The Pork Industry

On the average, pigs will gain one pound for every five pounds of feed consumed. This is known as the feed conversion ration.


The pork industry13

The Pork Industry

Hogs are very susceptible to diseases, many hogs are raised in “shower in shower out” operations.


The pork industry14

The Pork Industry

Workers and visitors must shower and put clothes provided by the producer, cuts down on transmission of diseases


The sheep industry

The Sheep Industry

Compared to beef and pork, Americans eat relatively little lamb and mutton.

Lamb refers to meat from a sheep that is less than one year old.


The sheep industry1

The Sheep Industry

Large cities along the eastern seaboard, account for almost half of the lamb consumed.


The sheep industry2

The Sheep Industry

Per capita consumption of lamb is only about 2 1/2 pounds. 96% of this consumption is lamb.


The sheep industry3

The Sheep Industry

Americans have not developed a taste for the strong taste of mutton.


The sheep industry4

The Sheep Industry

Most lamb and mutton are raised in the midwest. South Dakota ranks fifth in lamb and mutton production.


The sheep industry5

The Sheep Industry

Breeds of sheep are broken down into categories according to the type of wool the animals grow.


The sheep industry6

The Sheep Industry

Medium wool types, including Suffolk, Hampshire, Dorset and South Down are commonly used to produce slaughter lambs


The sheep industry7

The Sheep Industry

Predators are a major problem facing producers.

Coyotes and wild dogs kill many sheep each year.


The sheep industry8

The Sheep Industry

Some producers report losing 29% of their lamb crop to predators each year.


The wool industry

The Wool Industry

Wool is one of the oldest known fibers used for clothing.

use recorded by ancient Greeks, Romans, Egyptians and Hebrews.


The wool industry1

The Wool Industry

late 1800’s cotton production began to overtake wool as the primary clothing fiber.


The wool industry2

The Wool Industry

Wool fibers are made up of two distinct layers of cells: the cuticle on the outside and the cortex on the inside.


The wool industry3

The Wool Industry

Wool is graded according to the diameter of the fiber. Fine diameter wools are the highest grade.


The wool industry4

The Wool Industry

When wool is cleaned, oils are extracted from it, these oils are called lanolin. Lanolin is used in many soaps and lotions


The wool industry5

The Wool Industry

Mohair is the fiber fleece from Angora goats. This fiber is used to make a fabric that resists wrinkles.


The horse industry

The Horse Industry

First source of power. Used for work, transportation and war throughout recorded history.


The horse industry1

The Horse Industry

The numbers of horses and mules in the U.S. grew until the 1920’s when the car, truck and tractor caused a sharp decline in their numbers.


The horse industry2

The Horse Industry

Numbers continued to decline until the 1960’s. Since then, numbers have increased dramatically.


The horse industry3

The Horse Industry

Horses are categorized into three categories: light horse, draft horse and pony.


The horse industry4

The Horse Industry

light horses weigh over 900-1400 pounds.

This group is further divided into groups according to use.


The horse industry5

The Horse Industry

Gaited saddle horses, driving horses, stock horses, and racehorses.


The horse industry6

The Horse Industry

Ponies range in weight from 500-900 pounds. They may also be defined by height at the withers being shorter than 54 to 56 inches depending on the breed.


The horse industry7

The Horse Industry

Draft horses weigh more than 1400 pounds.

They are used for pulling heavy loads and are seen in pulling competitions and parades.


The horse industry8

The Horse Industry

There are more registered Quarter horses than any other breed in the US, Arabians rank second.


Mules

Mules

The mule has its own place in the history of America.

Around the Revolutionary War, mules began to be bred to work on farms and plantations.


Mules1

Mules

Particularly popular in the South, because they adapted well to working in hot humid weather


Mules2

Mules

Mules are a true hybrid, a cross between a male donkey and a female horse. Because of this, mules are usually sterile and cannot reproduce.


Mules3

Mules

Mules are more surefooted in rocky or hilly terrain. They are used to take tourists through the Grand Canyon. Mules will seldom overeat as horses will.


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