Advanced accelerators for future particle physics and light sources
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Advanced Accelerators for Future Particle Physics and Light Sources. J. B. Rosenzweig UCLA Department of Physics and Astronomy AAAS Annual Meeting Chicago, February 13, 2009. Introduction. Accelerators have been central tools in science for three-fourths of a century

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Advanced accelerators for future particle physics and light sources

Advanced Accelerators for Future Particle Physics and Light Sources

J. B. Rosenzweig

UCLA Department of Physics and Astronomy

AAAS Annual Meeting

Chicago, February 13, 2009


Introduction

Introduction

  • Accelerators have been central tools in science for three-fourths of a century

  • Enables research both fundamental and essential

    • HEP colliders: structure of matter at basic level

    • Light sources: structure of matter at functional level

  • Modern accelerators have extreme sophistication

    • Performance optimized over decades

    • New ideas in context of mature technologies

  • Accelerator science is a victim of its own success

    • Demand for frontier capabilities met at …

    • Size and cost at limit of realizability, public support


Historical schematic of accelerators particle physics leads spin offs follow quickly

Medicine

Light sources

(3rd Generation)

Nuclear physics

X-ray FEL

Historical schematic of accelerators: Particle physics leads, spin-offs follow quickly

Betatron

FFAG,

etc.

Superconducting

Circular

Collider

Circular

Collider

Synchrotron

VLHC?

Cyclotron

Muon Collider?

2030

1930

Ion Linear

Accelerators

Ultra-High Energy LC?

Electrostatic

Accelerators

Electron Linear

Accelerators

Electron Linear

Colliders

Laser/Plasma Accelerators?

AAAS 2009


Colliders and the energy frontier

Colliders and the energy frontier

  • Colliders uniquely explore energy (U) frontier

  • Exp’l growth in equivalent beam energy w/time

    • Livingston plot: “Moore’s Law” for accelerators

    • We have long been falling off plot

  • Challenge in energy, but not only…luminosity (high beam quality, density) as well

  • How to proceed?

    • Mature present techniques, or…

    • Discover new approaches


Limitations on collider energy

Tevatron complex at FNAL (linacs, rings, buffalo…)

27 km circumference

Limitations on collider energy

  • Synchrotron radiation power loss

    • Forces future e+-e- colliders to be linear

    • Large(!) circular machines for heavier particles

    • Consider muons for lepton colliders?

  • Scaling in size/cost

    • Near unitary limits

      • Few 104 m in dimension

      • Few $/€ 109


The energy challenge

The energy challenge

  • Avoid giantism

    • Cost above all

  • Higher fields give physics challenges

    • Circular machines: magnets

    • Linear machines: high field acceleration

  • Enter new world of high energy density physics

    • Beam density, energy

      • Beam quality must increase to compensate smaller cross-section

    • Stored field energy

High energy densty in action at the LHC


High energy density in future e linear accelerators

Linear accelerator schematic

High energy density in future e- linear accelerators

  • High fields give violent accelerating systems

    • Relativistic e- oscillations

  • Diseases

    • Breakdown, dark current

    • Peak/stored energy

    • Power dissipation

  • Approaches

    • High frequency, normal cond.

    • Superconducting (many apps)

    • Laser-fed optical structures?

      • Laser = high peak power

      • Miniaturization…

TESLA SC cavity


Approaches to new collider paradigms

Cryostat with 16 T Nb3Sn magnet at LBNL

Muon collider schematic

(R. Johnson)

Approaches to new collider paradigms

  • Advancement of existing techniques

    • Higher field (SC) magnets (VLHC)

    • Use of more exotic colliding particles (muons)

    • Higher gradient RF cavities (X-band LC)

    • Superconducting RF cavities (TESLA LC)

  • Revolutionary new approaches (high gradient frontier)

    • New sources: i.e.lasers

    • New accelerating media: i.e.plasmas

      • Truly immersed inhigh energy density physics

Another Talk


Hep spin offf x ray sase fel based on sc rf linear accelerator

10-15 GeV electrons

~1 Å radiation

HEP Spin-offf: X-ray SASE FEL based on SC RF linear accelerator

  • Synchrotron radiation is again converted from vice to virtue: SASE FEL

  • Coherent X-rays from multi-GeV e- beam

    • Unprecedented brightness

  • Cavities spin-off of TESLA program

    • Alslo high brightness e- beam physics

    • Beginning now

  • High average beam power than warm technologies (e.g. LCLS at Stanford)

  • ManySASE FEL projects worldwide

10 orders of magnitude beyond 3rd gen X-ray light source!


The optical accelerator

The optical accelerator

  • Scale the linac from 1-10 cm to 1-10 mm laser!

    • Scale beam sizes

  • Resonant linac-like structure

  • Slab symmetry

    • Take advantage of copious power

    • Allow high beam charge

    • Suppress wakefields

  • Limit on gradient?

    • 1-2 GV/m, avalanche ionization

  • Experiments

    • ongoing at SLAC (1 mm)

    • planned at UCLA (340 mm)

Resonant dielectric structure schematic

e-beam

Simulated field

profile (OOPIC);

half structure

FNAL Colloquium

Laser power input


Inverse cerenkov acceleration

Inverse Cerenkov Acceleration

  • Coherent Cerenkov wakes can be extremely strong

    • Short beam, small aperture; miniaturization…

  • SLAC FFTB, Nb=3E10, sz= 20 mm, a=50 mm, > 11 GV/m

  • Breakdown observed above 5.5 GV/m(!); on to plasma

Simulated GV/m Cerenkov wakes for typical FFTB parameters (OOPIC)


Past the breakdown limit plasma accelerators

Past the breakdown limit:Plasma Accelerators

  • Very high energy density laser or e- beam excites plasma waves as it propagates

  • Extremely high fields possible:

Schematic of laser wakefield

Accelerator (LWFA)

Ex: tenous gas density

AAAS 2009


Plasma wakefield acceleration pwfa

Plasma Wakefield Acceleration (PWFA)

  • Electron beam shock-excites plasma

  • Same scaling as Cerenkov wakes, maximum field scales in strength as

  • In “blowout” regime, plasma e-’s expelled by beam. Ion focusing + EM acceleration= plasma linac

AAAS 2009


Ultra high gradient pwfa e164 experiment at slac fftb

Modified PRL cover

  • New experiments: >10 GeV

    in 30 cm plasma (E167)

Ultra-high gradient PWFA: E164 experiment at SLAC FFTB

  • Uses ultra-short beam (20 m)

  • Beam field ionization creates dense plasma

  • Over 4 GeV(!) energy gain over 10 cm: 40 GV/m fields

  • Self-injection of plasma e- s

  • X-rays from betatron oscillations

ne=2.5x10 17 cm-3

plasma

M. Hogan, et al.

AAAS 2009


Pwfa doubles slac energy

PWFA doubles SLAC energy

  • Acceleration gradients of ~50 GV/m

    (3000 x SLAC)

  • Doubled 45 GeV beam energy in 1 m plasma

  • Required enormous infrastructure at SLAC

  • Not yet a “beam”

Nature 445 741 15-Feb-2007


Future pwfa whither facet

Future PWFA: whither FACET?

  • Further progress in PWFA (and dielectric) awaits FFTB replacement

  • FACET program addresses critical questions for PWFA

  • Use notch collimator to produce two bunches

  • Plasma acceleration with narrow energy spread

  • High-gradient positron acceleration


Plasma wave excitation with laser lwfa creation of very high quality beam

Plasma wave excitation with laser (LWFA): creation of very high quality beam

  • Trapped plasma electrons in LWFA give n~1 mm-mrad at Nb>1010

  • Narrow energy spreads can be produced

    • accelerating in plasma channels

  • Looks like a beam!

  • Less expensive than photo-injector/linac/compresor…

  • Very popular

    • LBL, Imperial, Ecole Polytech.


Advanced accelerators for future particle physics and light sources

Channel guided laser-plasma accelerator (LWFA) has produced GeV beams!

  • Higher power laser

  • Lower density, longer plasma

Capillary

1 GeV

e- beam

3 cm

40 TW, 37 fs

W.P. Leemans et. al, Nature Physics2 (2006) 696


Bella @ lbnl 10 gev pwfa

Laser

1000 TW

40 fs

< 1 m

~10 GeV

e- beam

Multi-GeV beams

BELLA @ LBNL 10 GeV PWFA

  • Two-stage design

  • Need 40 J in 40 fs laser pulse

  • BELLA Project: 1 PW, 1 Hz laser

Will be followed by staging at multi-GeV energies

10 GeV beam allow positron production, XFEL!


Advanced accelerators for future particle physics and light sources

10 GeV module: building block for a laser-plasma linear collider

Electron

Positron

200-500 m, 100 stages

Laser

1 TeV

1 TeV

200-500 m, 100 stages

10 GeV

e+

e-

  • Many experimental questions

    • Can begin to answer with ~$10-20M

  • BELLA is ~ head of world effort

  • Serious competition!


Advanced accelerators for future particle physics and light sources

PW class laser gives multi-GeV electron beams

in single stage: Table-top XFEL

undulator

  • Beam quality needs to be controlled

  • Naturally gives fsec pulses! “4D imaging with atomic resolution”

  • Hot topic… Projects in EU, USA


The europeans think big extreme light infrastructure exawatt laser

ELI

Relativistic Engineering

Secondary

Beam Sources

Electrons

Positron

ion

Muon

Neutrino

Neutrons

X rays

g rays

accelerators

Synchr. Xfel

The Europeans think big:Extreme Light Infrastructure Exawatt Laser

Fundamental

Interaction

Ultra-Relativistic optics

Super hot plasma

Nuclear Physics

Astrophysics

General relativity

Ultra fast phenomena

NLQED

Attosecond optics

Rel. Microelectronic

Rel. Microphotonic

Nuclear treatement

Nuclear pharmacology

Hadron therapy

Radiotherapy

Material science


Advanced accelerators for future particle physics and light sources

>100PW, 1Hz

ELI

10PW, 1 Hz

1PW >1Hz

Multi stage accelerator

Single stage accelerator

Accelerator physics

Fundamental physics

Beam lines for users

e, p, X, g, etc…

synchroton & XFEL communities

ELI’s strategy for accelerator physics

GeV e-beam

.2 GeV p-beam

10 GeV e-beam

GeV p-beam

50 GeV e-beam

few GeV p-beam


Advanced accelerators for future particle physics and light sources

1017

ELI

1016

ELI

1015

1014

Laser Power (W)

1013

1012

Electron beam energy and laser power evolution?

6

10

« conventional » technology

5

10

4

10

103

Maximale Electrons Energy (MeV)

*LLNL

LOA 

*LUND

RAL 

102

 LOA

*LLNL

KEK

UCLA

ILE ¤

10

UCLA

LULI  

1

1930

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

Years

Lasers are doing better with their Moore’s law until now...


Advanced accelerators for future particle physics and light sources

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ELI

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Towards an Integrated Scientific Project for European Researcher : ELI


Advanced accelerators

Advanced Accelerators

  • Advanced accelerators based on exotic new techniques have gone from concept to proof of application in last decade

  • US HEP led way, spin-offs to light sources

  • World-wide competition increasing

  • Excitement brings in energetic young researchers… must be on the cusp of important. US needs to reinvigorate!


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