Organizing the people s voices on political controversies
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Organizing the People’s Voices on Political Controversies . Politicians have opinions (but none of us can remember them). Lots of issues, stake - holders, opinions Great to have an “opinion-base” which tells us who stands where. An opinion-base. Opinion Network. Illegal_Immigration.

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Organizing the People’s Voices on Political Controversies

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Organizing the people s voices on political controversies

Organizing the People’s Voices on Political Controversies


Politicians have opinions but none of us can remember them

Politicians have opinions(but none of us can remember them)

  • Lots of issues, stake-holders, opinions

  • Great to have an “opinion-base” which tells us who stands where


An opinion base

An opinion-base


Opinion network

Opinion Network

Illegal_Immigration

Topic Hierarchy

Libyan_Civil_War_2011

War_Crimes_in_Libya

Facets

Gaddafi’s_Response_to_Civil_War

Military_Action_in_Libya

No-fly_Zone

S

S

O

S

O

Entities

Barack_Obama

UN_Security_Council

Angela_Merkel


Opinionetit

OpinioNetIt


Acquiring snippets

  • Candidate Opinion- Snippets

Acquiring Snippets

  • “Web”

    • Newspapers: AlJazeera, CNN, BBC

    • Wikipedia

  • Seed phrases as queries

    • “he supports”, “she supports”

    • “he voted for”, “he voted against”

Republican Senator Jon Kyl is a supporter of the Arizona immigration law

Robert Gates, the US defence secretary, has acknowledged that projections that are based on proposed military timelines may not be accurate, but stressed that the Pentagon is not exempt from belt-tightening because of its charge of defending the country.

Prime Minister David Cameron met Mr Gates in Downing Street on Monday and restated his support for American strategy in Afghanistan.


Entity and facet

  • Candidate Opinion- Snippets

Entity and facet

  • Parse sentence to extract entity and facet

    • Dependency parsing used: look for subject and object

    • Lots of heuristics

  • Expected parsing to be easy

    • It was easier, not easy

  • Entity and facet extraction

Republican Senator Jon Kyl is a supporter of the

Arizona immigration law

Robert Gates, the US defence secretary, has acknowledged that projections that are based on proposed military timelines may not be accurate, but stressed that the Pentagon is not exempt from belt-tightening because of its charge of defending the country.

Prime Minister David Cameron met Mr Gates in Downing Street on Monday and restated his support for American strategy in Afghanistan.


Raw facets and entities

  • Candidate Opinion- Snippets

Raw facets and entities

  • Lots of entities

    “Gaddaffi”, “Qaddaffi”

    “Obama”, “U.S. President”

  • Lots of raw facets

    “UN mandate against Libya”

    “use of force against Libyan civilians”

    “military air strikes on Libyan cities”

    “coalition air strikes on Libya”

  • Entity and facet extraction

  • Canonical forms for entities and facets


Canonical names

  • Candidate Opinion- Snippets

Canonical names

  • Canonical names derived from YAGO

  • Entity and facet extraction

preferred meaning

  • Canonical forms for entities and facets

means

means


Canonical facets 1 3

  • Candidate Opinion- Snippets

Canonical facets (1/3)

  • Wikipedia

    • Good source for labels

    • Topics not always controversial

  • Debatepedia

    • Lots of debates

    • Debates mean controversial topics

  • Map to Debatepedia, then to Wikipedia

  • Entity and facet extraction

  • Canonical forms for entities and facets


Canonical facets 2 3

  • Candidate Opinion- Snippets

Canonical facets (2/3)

Debatepedia Articles

TOPIC Tn

TOPIC T1

  • Entity and facet extraction

Article title

D1k

Article title

Article title

Article title

Article title

Article title

Dnj

ARTICLETEXT

ARTICLETEXT

ARTICLETEXT

ARTICLETEXT

ARTICLETEXT

ARTICLETEXT

ARTICLETEXT

ARTICLETEXT

  • Canonical forms for entities and facets

Category 1, 2,…

Category 1, 2,…

Category 1, 2,…

Category 1, 2,…

Category 1, 2,…

Category 1, 2,…

Category 1, 2,…

Category 1, 2,…


Canonical facets 3 3

  • Candidate Opinion- Snippets

Canonical facets (3/3)

Topic T, Document Di

  • Entity and facet extraction

Article title

ARTICLETEXT

  • Canonical forms for entities and facets

Category 1, 2,…

Raw facet, f

  • Used for ranking debates

  • Scores of top-10 results used to discard “useless” facets

  • Title of top debate used for canonical name


Topic hierarchy

  • Candidate Opinion- Snippets

Topic Hierarchy

Top 3 Wikipedia articles

  • Debatepedia to Wikipedia

  • Entity and facet extraction

Article title

Article title

Article title

Article title

Canonical facet name + document

ARTICLETEXT

ARTICLETEXT

ARTICLETEXT

ARTICLETEXT

ARTICLETEXT

  • Canonical forms for entities and facets

Category 1, 2,…

Category 1, 2,…

Category 1, 2,…

Category 1, 2,…

  • Organization of topic hierarchy

Candidate categories

Top 3 Wikipedia categories


Constructing the hierarchy

  • Candidate Opinion- Snippets

Constructing the hierarchy

Iraq War

Iran’s weapons

  • Entity and facet extraction

Iran-Iraq War

Iran’s nuclear program

Bilateral relations of Israel

Iran’s politics

  • Canonical forms for entities and facets

Iran’s nuclear energy

Israel’s weapons of mass destruction

Israeli-Palestinian conflict

10

  • Organization of topic hierarchy

4

Israeli Nuclear Energy

Depends on no. of common subcategories

Depends on no. of raw facets mapped to it


Constructing the hierarchy1

  • Candidate Opinion- Snippets

Constructing the hierarchy

Graph coarsening algorithm to cluster leads to a hypergraph

  • Entity and facet extraction

Iraq War

Iran’s weapons

Iran-Iraq War

  • Canonical forms for entities and facets

Iran’s nuclear program

Iran’s politics

Bilateral relations of Israel

Israel’s weapons of mass destruction

Iran’s nuclear energy

  • Organization of topic hierarchy

Israeli-Palestinian conflict

Israeli Nuclear Energy


Building a lexicon

  • Candidate Opinion- Snippets

Building a lexicon

  • Unsupervised

    • Query Google with <entity, facet> pairs

  • Supervised (details in the paper)

    • n-grams

    • mutual information

    • synonyms and antonyms

  • Entity and facet extraction

  • Lexicon of Support/Oppose phrases

  • Canonical forms for entities and facets

  • Organization of topic hierarchy


Lexicon of support oppose phrases

Lexicon of support/oppose phrases

  • Unsupervised


Evaluation

Evaluation

  • End-to-end experiments (Metric: Precision)

    • Random sample

    • Focused sample

    • Ground truth set

  • Quality of topic hierarchy

  • Quality of support/oppose lexicon


End to end experiments

End-to-end experiments

2000 randomly selected opinions were evaluated

  • Errors in extraction

    • Attributing the opinion to the incorrect entity (45%)

    • Facet extraction (45%)

    • Seeds were incorrect (9%)


Thank you time to express your opinions

  • Candidate Opinion- Snippets

Thank youTime to express your opinions!

  • Entity and facet extraction

  • Lexicon of Support/Oppose phrases

  • Canonical forms for entities and facets

  • Organization of topic hierarchy


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