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Brown Sauces: Sauce Espagnole, Demi-Glace & Jus Lié PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Brown Sauces: Sauce Espagnole, Demi-Glace & Jus Lié. “This is the Espagnole sauce, having reached the limit of perfection...”-Escoffier, (referring to demi-glace). Sauce Espagnole. Generally not used directly but refined into a demi-glace or other sauce

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Brown Sauces: Sauce Espagnole, Demi-Glace & Jus Lié

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Brown Sauces:Sauce Espagnole, Demi-Glace & Jus Lié

“This is the Espagnole sauce, having reached the limit of perfection...”-Escoffier, (referring to demi-glace)


Sauce Espagnole

  • Generally not used directly but refined into a demi-glace or other sauce

  • Developed from a French brown sauce by adding Spanish tomatoes…the early 1600’s

  • Brown Sauce, made by reducing brown stock with a dark roux and tomato product

  • Tomatoes are optional but do deepen the stock’s color


Making Sauce Espagnole

  • Make a 1# of Brown Roux

  • Caramelize 2# Mirepoix or Pinçage (Roasted or Sautéed Mirepoix)

  • Roast the ½# Tomato Product

  • Add the Roux, Mirepoix, Tomato & Bouquet Garni to 5-Qts. Veal/Beef Stock in a Stockpot and Simmer 1-2 hrs

  • Skim Frequently

  • Reduce to Sauce Consistency

  • Strain


Mirepoix vs. Pinçage

Mirepoix

Pinçage

  • 2x Onion, 1x Carrot & 1x Celery

  • Sweetness from onion and carrot

  • Herbaceous notes from celery

  • Light and vegetal

  • Luke

  • Mirepoix plus…

  • Tomato product

  • Caramelized by roasting or sauté

  • More assertive flavors

  • Used in brown sauces and stocks

  • Vader


Demi-Glace

  • 50% Sauce Espagnole + 50% Brown Stock, Reduced by 50%

  • May be used as a finishing sauce or (more commonly) as a base for other sauces

  • Alternate Liaisons

    • Arrowroot

    • Cornstarch

    • Potato Starch

  • A “natural” demi-glace or glace de viande is thickened by reduction only (no roux)

    • Natural Demi-Glace reduced by 80%

    • Glace de Viande reduced 90-95%


Reduction vs. Thickening with a Liaison

  • Reduction is usually preferred for taste and consistency

  • Reduction equals a lower yield thus higher cost

  • A roux or other liaison increases yield

  • Liaisons may adversely affect flavor, texture or add additional calories and fat.


Sauce Consistency

Thin Consistency

Sauce or Nappé Consistency

Notice the coating on the spoon


Making Demi-Glace (Classic)

  • Combine 1 quart of Espagnole with 1 quart Brown Stock

  • Simmer, Skim and Reduce by 50% -90%

  • Mushroom Stems may be added during simmering

  • Finish with a splash of Madeira, Port or Sherry (optional)


Making Demi-Glace (Modern v.1)

  • Roast Veal Breast (Ribs) with Mirepoix

  • Dégraisser, Deglaze and add all to stock pot

  • Cover with cold water

  • Simmer 5-12 hours. Depouillage.

  • Reduce, season and strain


Making Demi-Glace (Modern v.2)

  • Reduce Brown (Veal) Stock by ¾ or sauce consistency

    • Requires a stock with abundant gelatin

  • aka., Glace de Veau, Glace de Viande


Jus Lié, Fond Lié or Jus de Veau Lié

  • Alternative to a Demi-Glace…lighter and easier

  • Commonly Used in Restaurants as “Demi”

  • Brown Stock Reduced with a Pinçage (Caramelized Mirepoix and Tomato Product)

    • Sometimes thickened with cornstarch or arrowroot

    • Or, thickened by reduction only…requires an abundance of gelatin


“What’s Gravy?”

  • Starch-thickened and de-fatted natural juice from a roast…aka, “jus lié”

  • In England, just a jus, not thickened

  • In New England, a thick tomato sauce as in “Sunday Gravy”

  • Some Types:

    • “Red-Eye” gravy, made from ham drippings and deglazed with coffee (Southern)

    • “Sawmill” gravy, a white gravy…essentially a béchamel seasoned by the meat in the frying process…as in chicken-fried steak or a sausage gravy (Southern)

    • Onion Gravy

    • Giblet Gravy, …the only reason to eat turkey!


Sauce Tomate:Tomato Concassée & Tomato Coulis

  • French Tomato Sauces are usually a secondary component

  • Classic Italian or Spanish Tomato Sauce are base sauces flavored around a mirepoix or soffrito

  • Tomato Concassée

    • Concasser: “to crush, break, or grind”

    • Peeled and Seeded and Chopped

    • Raw or Barely Cooked

      • Best for In-Season-Ripe Tomatoes

    • Cooked

      • Slowly simmered for 5-10 minutes THEN…strain to remove excess liquid (As opposed to cooking all the down and destroying texture and delicacy.)

  • Tomato Coulis

    • Smooth purée strained of seeds and peel

    • Raw or Cooked


Tomato Sauces

French

Italian

  • Classically thickened with a roux

  • Uses a white stock, veal or chicken

  • Uses pork bones or other pork products

  • No Roux

  • Simmered with few ingredients

  • Oregano & Basil are commonly added


Improving the Flavor of Tomato Sauces

  • Use the best, ripest, fresh tomatoes.

    • Or a good canned tomato…ie, San Marzano

  • Avoid overcooking the tomatoes

  • The better the tomato the less need for other ingredients

    • Herbs, meats, stock, etc.

  • Use roasting as a means to concentrate tomato flavor and add caramelization flavors

  • Balance both sweetness and acidity with sugar and vinegar or add a gastrique

    • Gastrique: caramelized sugar deglazed with vinegar; used to flavor tomato or savory sauces


Canned Tomato Products

  • Tomato Puree

    • Briefly cooked tomatoes and strained resulting in a thick liquid

  • Tomato Sauce

    • Thinner than puree and may have seasonings and flavorings

  • Tomato Paste (Tomato Concentrate)

    • Tomatoes that have been cooked several hours, strained and reduced to thick concentrate. Generally fairly sweet.

  • Whole or Diced

    • Peeled, seeded and whole or diced. Uncooked.

  • Crushed

    • Unregulated description…may have seeds or peels and varying percentages of tomato


Canned Tomato Products con’t.

  • Sweetness (ripeness) varies

    • Salt is added to bring out the sweetness

  • Citric Acid

    • Preserves and corrects acidity

  • Calcium Chloride

    • Maintains a firm texture

      • too much equals metallic taste and "rubbery" texture

  • Color is NOT necessarily a good indicator of tomato taste. Taste is.


Quick Cooking vs. Slow Cooking Tomato Sauces

Marinara*

Ragu

  • Quick (20 Minutes)

  • Fresh Tomato Taste

  • Lacks Complexity

  • Long Cooking (Hours)

  • Complex Flavors

  • Usually Includes Meat and a Soffritto

*Originally, a slow-simmered tomato sauce from Naples. Italian-American Marinara is generally a quick, fresh tomato sauce or, salsa al pomodoro


Making a Basic Tomato Sauce

Finely Dice Onion and Émincé Garlic


Making a Basic Tomato Sauce

Puree and Tomatoes through a Food Mill or Passatutto (Removes skin & seeds.)


Making a Basic Tomato Sauce

Sweat Onions and then Garlic


Making a Basic Tomato Sauce

Add the Tomato Paste and Sauté (Turns a shade darker)


Making a Basic Tomato Sauce

Add the Tomato Puree and Season


Making a Basic Tomato Sauce

Simmer 30-45 minutes. Finish with fresh basil and splash of olive oil. Check seasoning for sugar, salt, acid & pepper.


Next Week’s Midterm: (Discuss)

  • Cauliflower Soup

    • Each student makes 1 quart using only:

      • cauliflower, WATER, butter, onion, shallot, garlic, thyme, bay leaf and cream.

  • Chicken Soup with Matzo Balls and Vegetables

    • Each student makes 1 quart

      • From week one’s recipes

  • Clam Chowder

    • Each student makes 1 quart

      • Use a clam broth to make a clam veloute

      • Ingredients are limited to clams, clam juice, potatoes, butter, cream. Salt and pepper.


Today’s Lab:

  • Espagnole

  • Classic Demi Glace

  • Demi Glace (Modern)

  • Tomato Sauce, French

    • Coulis De Tomates À La Provençale (Tomato Sauce with Mediterranean Flavors)

    • Chicken Provencale (Poulet à la provençale)

  • Miso Soup and Dashi


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