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Brown Sauces: Sauce Espagnole, Demi-Glace & Jus Lié. “This is the Espagnole sauce, having reached the limit of perfection...”-Escoffier, (referring to demi-glace). Sauce Espagnole. Generally not used directly but refined into a demi-glace or other sauce

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brown sauces sauce espagnole demi glace jus li
Brown Sauces:Sauce Espagnole, Demi-Glace & Jus Lié

“This is the Espagnole sauce, having reached the limit of perfection...”-Escoffier, (referring to demi-glace)

sauce espagnole
Sauce Espagnole
  • Generally not used directly but refined into a demi-glace or other sauce
  • Developed from a French brown sauce by adding Spanish tomatoes…the early 1600’s
  • Brown Sauce, made by reducing brown stock with a dark roux and tomato product
  • Tomatoes are optional but do deepen the stock’s color
making sauce espagnole
Making Sauce Espagnole
  • Make a 1# of Brown Roux
  • Caramelize 2# Mirepoix or Pinçage (Roasted or Sautéed Mirepoix)
  • Roast the ½# Tomato Product
  • Add the Roux, Mirepoix, Tomato & Bouquet Garni to 5-Qts. Veal/Beef Stock in a Stockpot and Simmer 1-2 hrs
  • Skim Frequently
  • Reduce to Sauce Consistency
  • Strain
mirepoix vs pin age
Mirepoix vs. Pinçage

Mirepoix

Pinçage

  • 2x Onion, 1x Carrot & 1x Celery
  • Sweetness from onion and carrot
  • Herbaceous notes from celery
  • Light and vegetal
  • Luke
  • Mirepoix plus…
  • Tomato product
  • Caramelized by roasting or sauté
  • More assertive flavors
  • Used in brown sauces and stocks
  • Vader
demi glace
Demi-Glace
  • 50% Sauce Espagnole + 50% Brown Stock, Reduced by 50%
  • May be used as a finishing sauce or (more commonly) as a base for other sauces
  • Alternate Liaisons
    • Arrowroot
    • Cornstarch
    • Potato Starch
  • A “natural” demi-glace or glace de viande is thickened by reduction only (no roux)
    • Natural Demi-Glace reduced by 80%
    • Glace de Viande reduced 90-95%
reduction vs thickening with a liaison
Reduction vs. Thickening with a Liaison
  • Reduction is usually preferred for taste and consistency
  • Reduction equals a lower yield thus higher cost
  • A roux or other liaison increases yield
  • Liaisons may adversely affect flavor, texture or add additional calories and fat.
sauce consistency
Sauce Consistency

Thin Consistency

Sauce or Nappé Consistency

Notice the coating on the spoon

making demi glace classic
Making Demi-Glace (Classic)
  • Combine 1 quart of Espagnole with 1 quart Brown Stock
  • Simmer, Skim and Reduce by 50% -90%
  • Mushroom Stems may be added during simmering
  • Finish with a splash of Madeira, Port or Sherry (optional)
making demi glace modern v 1
Making Demi-Glace (Modern v.1)
  • Roast Veal Breast (Ribs) with Mirepoix
  • Dégraisser, Deglaze and add all to stock pot
  • Cover with cold water
  • Simmer 5-12 hours. Depouillage.
  • Reduce, season and strain
making demi glace modern v 2
Making Demi-Glace (Modern v.2)
  • Reduce Brown (Veal) Stock by ¾ or sauce consistency
    • Requires a stock with abundant gelatin
  • aka., Glace de Veau, Glace de Viande
jus li fond li or jus de veau li
Jus Lié, Fond Lié or Jus de Veau Lié
  • Alternative to a Demi-Glace…lighter and easier
  • Commonly Used in Restaurants as “Demi”
  • Brown Stock Reduced with a Pinçage (Caramelized Mirepoix and Tomato Product)
    • Sometimes thickened with cornstarch or arrowroot
    • Or, thickened by reduction only…requires an abundance of gelatin
what s gravy
“What’s Gravy?”
  • Starch-thickened and de-fatted natural juice from a roast…aka, “jus lié”
  • In England, just a jus, not thickened
  • In New England, a thick tomato sauce as in “Sunday Gravy”
  • Some Types:
    • “Red-Eye” gravy, made from ham drippings and deglazed with coffee (Southern)
    • “Sawmill” gravy, a white gravy…essentially a béchamel seasoned by the meat in the frying process…as in chicken-fried steak or a sausage gravy (Southern)
    • Onion Gravy
    • Giblet Gravy, …the only reason to eat turkey!
sauce tomate tomato concass e tomato coulis
Sauce Tomate:Tomato Concassée & Tomato Coulis
  • French Tomato Sauces are usually a secondary component
  • Classic Italian or Spanish Tomato Sauce are base sauces flavored around a mirepoix or soffrito
  • Tomato Concassée
    • Concasser: “to crush, break, or grind”
    • Peeled and Seeded and Chopped
    • Raw or Barely Cooked
      • Best for In-Season-Ripe Tomatoes
    • Cooked
      • Slowly simmered for 5-10 minutes THEN…strain to remove excess liquid (As opposed to cooking all the down and destroying texture and delicacy.)
  • Tomato Coulis
    • Smooth purée strained of seeds and peel
    • Raw or Cooked
tomato sauces
Tomato Sauces

French

Italian

  • Classically thickened with a roux
  • Uses a white stock, veal or chicken
  • Uses pork bones or other pork products
  • No Roux
  • Simmered with few ingredients
  • Oregano & Basil are commonly added
improving the flavor of tomato sauces
Improving the Flavor of Tomato Sauces
  • Use the best, ripest, fresh tomatoes.
    • Or a good canned tomato…ie, San Marzano
  • Avoid overcooking the tomatoes
  • The better the tomato the less need for other ingredients
    • Herbs, meats, stock, etc.
  • Use roasting as a means to concentrate tomato flavor and add caramelization flavors
  • Balance both sweetness and acidity with sugar and vinegar or add a gastrique
    • Gastrique: caramelized sugar deglazed with vinegar; used to flavor tomato or savory sauces
canned tomato products
Canned Tomato Products
  • Tomato Puree
    • Briefly cooked tomatoes and strained resulting in a thick liquid
  • Tomato Sauce
    • Thinner than puree and may have seasonings and flavorings
  • Tomato Paste (Tomato Concentrate)
    • Tomatoes that have been cooked several hours, strained and reduced to thick concentrate. Generally fairly sweet.
  • Whole or Diced
    • Peeled, seeded and whole or diced. Uncooked.
  • Crushed
    • Unregulated description…may have seeds or peels and varying percentages of tomato
canned tomato products con t
Canned Tomato Products con’t.
  • Sweetness (ripeness) varies
    • Salt is added to bring out the sweetness
  • Citric Acid
    • Preserves and corrects acidity
  • Calcium Chloride
    • Maintains a firm texture
      • too much equals metallic taste and "rubbery" texture
  • Color is NOT necessarily a good indicator of tomato taste. Taste is.
quick cooking vs slow cooking tomato sauces
Quick Cooking vs. Slow Cooking Tomato Sauces

Marinara*

Ragu

  • Quick (20 Minutes)
  • Fresh Tomato Taste
  • Lacks Complexity
  • Long Cooking (Hours)
  • Complex Flavors
  • Usually Includes Meat and a Soffritto

*Originally, a slow-simmered tomato sauce from Naples. Italian-American Marinara is generally a quick, fresh tomato sauce or, salsa al pomodoro

making a basic tomato sauce
Making a Basic Tomato Sauce

Finely Dice Onion and Émincé Garlic

making a basic tomato sauce1
Making a Basic Tomato Sauce

Puree and Tomatoes through a Food Mill or Passatutto (Removes skin & seeds.)

making a basic tomato sauce2
Making a Basic Tomato Sauce

Sweat Onions and then Garlic

making a basic tomato sauce3
Making a Basic Tomato Sauce

Add the Tomato Paste and Sauté (Turns a shade darker)

making a basic tomato sauce4
Making a Basic Tomato Sauce

Add the Tomato Puree and Season

making a basic tomato sauce5
Making a Basic Tomato Sauce

Simmer 30-45 minutes. Finish with fresh basil and splash of olive oil. Check seasoning for sugar, salt, acid & pepper.

next week s midterm discuss
Next Week’s Midterm: (Discuss)
  • Cauliflower Soup
    • Each student makes 1 quart using only:
      • cauliflower, WATER, butter, onion, shallot, garlic, thyme, bay leaf and cream.
  • Chicken Soup with Matzo Balls and Vegetables
    • Each student makes 1 quart
      • From week one’s recipes
  • Clam Chowder
    • Each student makes 1 quart
      • Use a clam broth to make a clam veloute
      • Ingredients are limited to clams, clam juice, potatoes, butter, cream. Salt and pepper.
today s lab
Today’s Lab:
  • Espagnole
  • Classic Demi Glace
  • Demi Glace (Modern)
  • Tomato Sauce, French
    • Coulis De Tomates À La Provençale (Tomato Sauce with Mediterranean Flavors)
    • Chicken Provencale (Poulet à la provençale)
  • Miso Soup and Dashi
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