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Central Nervous System. Ch. 13-1. Protective Structures. Bone Meninges C erebro -spinal fluid. Meninges. Three connective tissue coverings that encircle the spinal cord and brain Dura mater – most superficial Arachnoid mater – looks like spider web

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protective structures
Protective Structures
  • Bone
  • Meninges
  • Cerebro-spinal fluid
meninges
Meninges
  • Three connective tissue coverings that encircle the spinal cord and brain
    • Dura mater – most superficial
    • Arachnoid mater – looks like spider web
    • Pia mater – thin, transparent, adheres to surface of brain and spinal cord
spinal cord
Spinal Cord
  • Has 31 segments, each with a pair of spinal nerves
  • 2 main enlargements
    • Cervical – supplies nerves to upper limbs
    • Lumbar – supplies nerves to lower limbs
  • Function
    • Conducting nerve impulses
    • Serves as a center for spinal reflexes
spinal cord2
Spinal Cord
  • Ascending – impulses travel to the brain (sensory)
  • Descending – impulses travel to the muscles (motor)
reflexes
Reflexes
  • Fast, automatic, unplanned sequence of actions that occurs in response to a particular stimulus
  • Some are inborn
    • Moving hand from hot surface
  • Some are learned or acquired
    • Slamming on breaks while driving
reflexes1
Reflexes
  • Spinal reflex
    • Integration occurs in spinal cord
    • Knee-jerk reflex
  • Cranial reflex
    • Integration occurs in brain stem
    • Tracking movements of the eyes while reading
  • Somatic reflex
    • Involve contraction of skeletal muscles
  • Autonomic reflex
    • Not consciously perceived
reflex arc
Reflex Arc
  • Pathway followed by a nerve impulse that produces a reflex
  • 5 components
    • Sensory receptor
    • Sensory neuron
    • Integrating center
    • Motor neuron
    • Effector
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