Central nervous system
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Central Nervous System. Ch. 13-1. Protective Structures. Bone Meninges C erebro -spinal fluid. Meninges. Three connective tissue coverings that encircle the spinal cord and brain Dura mater – most superficial Arachnoid mater – looks like spider web

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Central Nervous System

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Central nervous system

Central Nervous System

Ch. 13-1


Protective structures

Protective Structures

  • Bone

  • Meninges

  • Cerebro-spinal fluid


Meninges

Meninges

  • Three connective tissue coverings that encircle the spinal cord and brain

    • Dura mater – most superficial

    • Arachnoid mater – looks like spider web

    • Pia mater – thin, transparent, adheres to surface of brain and spinal cord


Meninges1

Meninges


Meninges2

Meninges


Spinal cord

Spinal Cord

  • Has 31 segments, each with a pair of spinal nerves

  • 2 main enlargements

    • Cervical – supplies nerves to upper limbs

    • Lumbar – supplies nerves to lower limbs

  • Function

    • Conducting nerve impulses

    • Serves as a center for spinal reflexes


Spinal cord1

Spinal Cord


Spinal cord2

Spinal Cord

  • Ascending – impulses travel to the brain (sensory)

  • Descending – impulses travel to the muscles (motor)


Reflexes

Reflexes

  • Fast, automatic, unplanned sequence of actions that occurs in response to a particular stimulus

  • Some are inborn

    • Moving hand from hot surface

  • Some are learned or acquired

    • Slamming on breaks while driving


Reflexes1

Reflexes

  • Spinal reflex

    • Integration occurs in spinal cord

    • Knee-jerk reflex

  • Cranial reflex

    • Integration occurs in brain stem

    • Tracking movements of the eyes while reading

  • Somatic reflex

    • Involve contraction of skeletal muscles

  • Autonomic reflex

    • Not consciously perceived


Reflex arc

Reflex Arc

  • Pathway followed by a nerve impulse that produces a reflex

  • 5 components

    • Sensory receptor

    • Sensory neuron

    • Integrating center

    • Motor neuron

    • Effector


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