Chapter 6 manifest destiny
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Chapter 6. Manifest Destiny. Chronological Landmarks 6.1 The Louisiana Purchase (1803) 6.2 The War of 1812 (1812–1814) 6.3 The Missouri Compromise (1820) 6.4 The Monroe Doctrine (1823) 6.5 The Indian Removal Act (1830) 6.6 Transcendentalism (1836)

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Chapter 6. Manifest Destiny

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Chapter 6 manifest destiny

Chapter 6. Manifest Destiny

Chronological Landmarks

6.1 The Louisiana Purchase (1803)

6.2 The War of 1812 (1812–1814)

6.3 TheMissouri Compromise(1820)

6.4 The Monroe Doctrine (1823)

6.5 The Indian Removal Act (1830)

6.6 Transcendentalism (1836)

6.7 The Annexation of Texas (1845)


Chronological landmarks

Chronological Landmarks

  • 1797–1801John Adams (1735–1826) as the Second President

  • 1801–1809Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826) as the Third President

  • 1803The Louisiana Purchase

  • 1809–1817James Madison (1751–1836) as the Fourth President

  • 1812–1814 The War of 1812

  • 1814 The Treaty of Ghent

  • 1814Napoleon Abdicates

  • 1817–1825James Monroe (1758–1831) as the Fifth President

  • 1820The Missouri Compromise

  • 1821Independence of Mexico

  • 1823The Monroe Doctrine

  • 1825–1829John Quincy Adam (1767–1848) as the Sixth President

  • 1829–1837Andrew Jackson (1767–1845) as the Seventh President

  • 1830 Indian Removal Act

  • 1837–1841Martin Van Buren (1782–1862) as the Eighth President

  • 1838 The Trail of Tears

  • 1841–1841William Henry Harrison (1773–1841) as the Ninth President

  • 1841–1845John Tyler (1790 - 1862) as the Tenth President

  • 1845–1849James K. Polk (1795–1849) as the 11th President

  • 1845The Annexation of Texas


6 1 the louisiana purchase 1803

6.1 The Louisiana Purchase (1803)

6.1.1Right of Deposit▲

6.1.2Napoleon Bonaparte▲

6.1.3Thomas Jefferson▲

6.1.4all of Louisiana▲

6.1.5Louisiana Purchase▲


6 1 1 right of deposit

6.1.1Right of Deposit▲

  • The Louisiana Territory encompassed包括a vast, largely unexplored tract of western land, and it defined the western border of the United States along the Mississippi from the Gulf of Mexico to present–day Minnesota. At the mouth of the Mississippi lay the territory’s most valuable property in terms of commerce, the port of New Orleans, known as “The Crescent City” (新月城)because of its location within a bend of the river. Since American independence, Louisiana had held a special place in the young nation’s expansionist dream. Although Spain acquired it from France in 1763, hundreds of thousands of Americans in search of land kept swarming to this large unpopulated area. In a treaty of 1795, Spain agreed to give the United States the Right of Deposit at New Orleans, which allowed the American settlers to ship all of their surplus goods盈余产品by boat down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico.


6 1 2 napoleon bonaparte 1

6.1.2 Napoleon Bonaparte(1) ▲

  • 1n 1789, the French Revolutiontook place. To stop the spread of revolution, European rulers of some other nations declared war on France. As France battled these nations, a young army officer Napoleon Bonaparte (1769–1821), rose to power and seized control of the French government in 1799. Napoleon dreamed of building a great empire based on France’s West Indies colony of Santo Domingo(多米尼加首都), and on the vast North American territory of Louisiana, using the Mississippi Valley asa food and trade center to feed the slaves on the sugar–rich island of Hispaniola (海地岛).


6 1 2 napoleon bonaparte 2

6.1.2 Napoleon Bonaparte(2)▲

  • In 1800 to 1801, Napoleon secretly forced the weak Spanish government to cede割让the great tract back to France in several pacts, and gave Spain a quid pro quo (交换物) in shape of support for Spanish ambitions in Italy. In 1802, the Spanish government suddenly suspended the American Right of Deposit at New Orleans, and Americans could no longer bring goods down the Mississippi to New Orleans and deposit them there for transshipment. Americans trembled with apprehension忧惧and indignation 愤怒at the news. Every eye in the United States was then focused on the affairs of Louisiana.


Chapter 6 manifest destiny

6.1.3 Thomas Jefferson(1) ▲

  • Thomas Jefferson learned about the transfer of Louisiana Territory soon after coming into office in 1801. He wanted to stay out of European affairs, but he could not ignore the concerns of the West. Nevertheless, Jefferson remained serene平静的and imperturbable沉着冷静and was not to be rushed into precipitate贸然轻率action. His annual report in the congress breathed platitudes陈词滥调of peace, friendship, and economy. Yet he immediately began strengthening fortifications防御in the West and preparing for the worst. He asked and obtained from Congress an appropriation of $2 million and sent James Monroe (1758–1831) as envoy extraordinary to help Robert R. Livingston (1746–1813), American Minister in Paris, to buy New Orleans and Florida from Napoleon.

James Monroe (1758–1831)

Robert Livingston (1746–1813)


6 1 3 thomas jefferson 2

6.1.3 Thomas Jefferson(2)▲

  • If the purchase was impossible, they would try to obtain a guarantee of the Right of Deposit; if France would grant nothing and retained clearly hostile intentions toward the United States, they would cross the Channel to seek a defensive alliance with Great Britain, marrying the United States to the British fleet and nation. In the meantime, however, Napoleon lost his interest in Louisiana, since the prospect of anAmerican–British alliance might well mean British conquest of Louisiana. Besides, Napoleon’s ambition to re–establish the French empire in the western hemisphere was greatly discouraged by a military disaster in French–ruled Haiti, where a great insurgency叛乱and yellow fever黄热病together decimated毁灭a French force of 24,000 men. He therefore resolved to fill his treasury by selling the region to the Americans to prepare for the war looming again in Europe, to put Louisiana beyond the reach of the British, and to bid for投标the friendship of the United States.


6 1 4 all of louisiana 1

6.1.4all of Louisiana(1)▲

  • In April 1803, Napoleon offered to sell not just New Orleans, but all of Louisiana, to the United States. This proposal flabbergasted使目瞪口呆Livingston and Monroe. On the one hand, their instructions from Washington said nothing about acquiring all of Louisiana; and they certainly had not been authorized to spend what the French demanded. On the other, here was an unprecedented opportunity to expand the boundaries of the United States dramatically. When a letter arrived from Livingston urging immediate ratification批准of a treaty for the purchase before Napoleon might withdraw the offer as suddenly as he had made it, Jefferson found the legality of the act deeply troubling.


6 1 4 all of louisiana 2

6.1.4all of Louisiana (2)▲

  • According to his Strict–Constructionist doctrine, the treaty itself was unconstitutional, because, if the federal government possessed no power not expressly清楚地granted, the President had no power to increase the national domain by treaty. Indeed, Jefferson began drawing up constitutional amendment authorizing the acquisition of Louisiana, but ratification would take time and Livingston urged haste. In the end, Jefferson’s constitutional scruples审慎vanished, pragmatism实用主义triumphed over theory, and he furnished himself with Hamilton’s Broad–Constructionistinterpretation of the Constitution and sent the treaty to the Senate for ratification. Approved by the Senate, the American ministers haggled讨价还价over a few details, took a deep breath, and agreed to purchase Louisiana for approximately $15 million.


6 1 5 louisiana purchase 1

6.1.5Louisiana Purchase (1)▲

  • [1英亩(相当于6亩)只合4美分,这块土地相当于4个法国]

  • In 1803, it seemed likely that the United States was paying $15 million for a scrap of paper. The boundary was not specified, the province was still in the hands of Spain, Napoleon had previously promised to Spain never to dispose of处置Louisiana to a third power, and the French Constitution allowed no alienation of national territory without a vote of the legislature立法机关. However, the Louisiana Purchase turned out to be the most popular and momentous event of Jefferson’s presidency. It more than doubled the size of the United States by adding 827,000 square milesat one stroke一举. Not only could western commerce flow down the Mississippi unimpeded未受阻止to the sea, but it also freed America from Europe’s colonial entanglements纠缠and prepared the way for the eventual dominance of the United States in the Western Hemisphere.


6 1 5 louisiana purchase 2

6.1.5Louisiana Purchase (2)▲

  • Jefferson was jubilant 欢呼about this brilliant deal, as the purchase would certainly guarantee the prosperity of his agrarian republic. He persuaded Congress to fund a scientific exploration of the trans–Mississippi west to be led by Captain Meriwether Lewis (1774–1809) andLieutenant William Clark (1774–1851). Lewis and Clark set out from St. Louis in 1804, crossed the Rockies, reached the Oregon coast on the Pacific Ocean, then turned back and completed the return journey in1806. Their expedition increased geographic and scientific knowledge of previously unexplored country, strengthened U.S. claims to the Oregon Territory, improved relations with Native American tribes, and developed maps and land routes for fur trappers and future settlers. As an American historian once remarked, “If the Civil War is ourIliad伊利亚特, then this expedition is our Odyssey奥德修斯.”


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