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Organizational Behavior ISLT-644 Instructor: Erlan Bakiev, Ph.D. Chapter 12 Power and Politics. Essentials of Organizational Behavior , 11/e Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge. After studying this chapter, you should be able to:. Define power and contrast leadership and power.

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Organizational behavior islt 644 instructor erlan bakiev ph d

Organizational Behavior

ISLT-644

Instructor: Erlan Bakiev, Ph.D.


Chapter 12 power and politics

Chapter 12

Power and Politics

Essentials of

Organizational Behavior, 11/e

Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge


After studying this chapter you should be able to

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Define power and contrast leadership and power.

  • Contrast the five bases of power.

  • Identify nine power or influence tactics and their contingencies.

  • Identify the causes and consequences of political behavior.

  • Apply impression management techniques.

  • Show the influence of culture on the uses and perceptions of politics.


Power

Power

The capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes

(Bass, 1990)

Two facets:

  • Potential: power does not need to be actualized to be effective

  • Dependency: based on the available alternatives and their desirability


Contrasting leadership and power

Contrasting Leadership and Power


Formal bases of power french and raven 1959

Formal Bases of Power (French and Raven, 1959)

Due organizational position:

  • Coercive Power

    • Complies from fear of the negative results

  • Reward Power

    • Complies due to desire for positive benefits

  • Legitimate Power (Ward, 2001)

    • From the formal authority to control and use organizational resources


Personal bases of power

Personal Bases of Power

Stems from an individual’s unique characteristics:

  • Expert

    • Influence wielded as a result of expertise, special skill, or knowledge

  • Referent

    • Based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits - charisma


Effective power bases

Effective Power Bases

  • Expert and referent power are positively related to performance and commitment

  • Reward and legitimate power are unrelated to organizational outcomes

  • Coercive power is negatively related to employee satisfaction and commitment (Podsadkoff and Schreisheim, 1985)


Power tactics

Power Tactics

  • Used to translate power bases into specific actions that influence others

  • More immediate than power bases

  • Can result in the accumulation of a power base


Nine influence tactics

Nine Influence Tactics

LegitimacyPressure

Rational persuasionCoalitions

Inspirational appeals

Consultation

Exchange

Personal appeals

Ingratiation


Influence tactic effectiveness

Influence Tactic Effectiveness

  • Most effective:

    • Rational Persuasion

    • Inspirational Appeals

    • Consultation

  • Least effective:

    • Pressure (Yukl, 2002)

  • Combining tactics increases effectiveness (Falbe and Yukl, 1992)

  • Direction, sequencing, individual skill, and organizational culture modify effectiveness


Politics power in action

Politics: Power in Action

Politicsoccur when employees convert power into action

Organizational Politics:

Activities not required as part of one’s formal role in the organization, but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization (Farrell and Peteren, 1982; Drory and Rom, 1990; Croponzano et al., 1995)

  • Outside of job requirements

  • Requires the use of power


Legitimacy of political behaviors farrell and petersen 1988

Legitimacy of Political Behaviors (Farrell and Petersen,1988)

  • Based on sticking to the implied rules

  • Legitimate:

    • Normal everyday politics – complaining

  • Illegitimate:

    • “Hardball” activities such as sabotage, whistle-blowing, and symbolic protests


The reality of politics

The Reality of Politics

It is a major part of organizational life (Buchanan, 2008)

Politics arise in organizations because of:

  • Conflicting interests

  • Limited resources

  • Ambiguity in decision making

    Politicking: twisting facts to support one’s own goals and interests


Individual factors contributing to political behavior

Individual Factors Contributing to Political Behavior

  • Traits that encourage political action:

    • High self-monitors

    • High need for power

  • Situational influences leading to illegitimate political actions (Farrell and Petersen, 1982):

    • Lower organizational investment

    • Greater the number of perceived alternatives

    • Greater expectations of success


Organizational factors contributing to political behavior

Organizational Factors Contributing to Political Behavior

  • Organizational resources declining or distribution shifting (Ferris and Kachmar, 1992)

  • Opportunity for promotion exists

  • Organizational culture issues:

    • Low trust

    • Role ambiguity

    • Zero-sum reward allocation

    • High performance pressures

    • Leading by poor example


Responses to organizational politics

Responses to Organizational Politics

For those unwilling to play, or with modest political skills, the outcomes are negative

  • Moderated by individual’s understanding of who makes decisions and why they were selected

  • When perceived as a threat, people respond with defensive behaviors (Ashforth and Lee, 1990)


Impression management im

Impression Management (IM)

  • The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them (Gardenr and Martinlo, 1988)

  • People may misrepresent themselves in situations of high uncertainty or ambiguity

  • Misrepresentations may discredit the individuals – seen as insincere or manipulative


Impression management results

Impression Management Results

  • Interviews

    • Self-promotion and ingratiation work well

  • Performance Evaluations

    • Ingratiation positively related

    • Self-promotion is negatively related


The ethics of behaving politically

The Ethics of Behaving Politically

Questions to consider:

  • What is the utility of engaging in the behavior?

  • How does the utility of engaging in the political behavior balance out any harm it will do to others?

  • Does the political activity conform to standards of equity and justice?


Global implications

Global Implications

Perception of Politics:

  • Negative consequences are common

    Preference for Power Tactics:

  • Differences exist consistent with cultural values

    Effectiveness of Power Tactics:

  • Little evidence for differences


Implications for managers

Implications for Managers

Power can be increased by:

  • Increasing the dependence of others

  • Gaining unique knowledge or skills

  • Minimizing one’s own dependence

  • Acquiring useful bases of power

  • Using effective power tactics

  • Avoiding coercion


Keep in mind

Keep in Mind…

  • Informal, expert, and referent power are the most important

  • Use consultation and inspirational appeals

  • IM techniques effectiveness depends on the setting


Summary

Summary

  • Defined power and contrasted leadership and power.

  • Contrasted the five bases of power.

  • Identified nine power or influence tactics and their contingencies.

  • Identified the causes and consequences of political behavior.

  • Applied impression management techniques.

  • Showed the influence of culture on the uses and perceptions of politics.


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