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2/21/2012 10:36 AM. P2 - 2. Session Outline. . What is a WBS and where is it useful?What is successive decomposition?How is the WBS used on a program?How can I tell if I have a good WBS?Numbering notation.Examples.Common errors.. Outline. 2/21/2012 10:36 AM. P2 - 3. Where is WBS Useful?. Rocket Science?Brain Surgery?CVISN?.

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1. 2/21/2012 7:09 PM P2 - 1

2. 2/21/2012 7:09 PM P2 - 2 Session Outline What is a WBS and where is it useful? What is successive decomposition? How is the WBS used on a program? How can I tell if I have a good WBS? Numbering notation. Examples. Common errors.

3. 2/21/2012 7:09 PM P2 - 3 Where is WBS Useful? Rocket Science? Brain Surgery? CVISN? Raise your hand if you would call yourself a Rocket Scientist. Raise your hand if you are a brain surgeon. OK, no one raised their hand. And yet, we will understand the WBS for Rocket Science and for Brain Surgery because the upper levels of the WBS use “everyday” language and tell us what is to be accomplished, but not how. Answer to question above: All three, especially to show us the breadth of the scope.Raise your hand if you would call yourself a Rocket Scientist. Raise your hand if you are a brain surgeon. OK, no one raised their hand. And yet, we will understand the WBS for Rocket Science and for Brain Surgery because the upper levels of the WBS use “everyday” language and tell us what is to be accomplished, but not how. Answer to question above: All three, especially to show us the breadth of the scope.

4. 2/21/2012 7:09 PM P2 - 4 The Work Breakdown Structure Is... “Product-oriented hierarchy of goods and services.” Form: inverted tree; or indented list. Visualizing the entire project. Common framework for planning and control. Vehicle to divide work into tasks that are: Manageable Independent Measurable Integratable Graphically displays entire project. Clear definition of all effort. “Top Assembly Drawing” of the project. “Product Breakdown Structure” or “Project Breakdown Structure” more apt name! Or perhaps “Work Buildup Structure”. PLANNING PRINCIPLE #1: WBS & DECOMPOSITION. (First bullet) This is the classic definition of WBS. This would be the one to tattoo on your arm. Humor: the instructors tell me that if you do tattoo it and it will never come off, it’s not cheating! Key is product-oriented. Give examples of goods (processor; software) and services (quality assurance; system engineering). Typically more nouns at upper level; verbs at lower levels. Besides products, at the top level are “global services: (e.g. spacecraft thermal engineering) without which the project team would be considerably less efficient or effective. Services that span products; are for global optimization. WBS examples will be coming later. Explain the MIMI list “manageable…” by picking two students Student_A and Student_B as subsystem development managers (lead engineers) of say 7 people each. A & B need to be able to direct their people (manageable) without having to worry at every moment about the other team. The subsystems need to be independent but with clearly-defined interfaces. They need to know what their technical, cost, and schedule goals are (measurable). And at the end of their development, the products need to bolt up against each other in form and function (integratable). Work Breakdown is an unfortunate name. But that’s how it’s known in the industry.PLANNING PRINCIPLE #1: WBS & DECOMPOSITION. (First bullet) This is the classic definition of WBS. This would be the one to tattoo on your arm. Humor: the instructors tell me that if you do tattoo it and it will never come off, it’s not cheating! Key is product-oriented. Give examples of goods (processor; software) and services (quality assurance; system engineering). Typically more nouns at upper level; verbs at lower levels. Besides products, at the top level are “global services: (e.g. spacecraft thermal engineering) without which the project team would be considerably less efficient or effective. Services that span products; are for global optimization. WBS examples will be coming later. Explain the MIMI list “manageable…” by picking two students Student_A and Student_B as subsystem development managers (lead engineers) of say 7 people each. A & B need to be able to direct their people (manageable) without having to worry at every moment about the other team. The subsystems need to be independent but with clearly-defined interfaces. They need to know what their technical, cost, and schedule goals are (measurable). And at the end of their development, the products need to bolt up against each other in form and function (integratable). Work Breakdown is an unfortunate name. But that’s how it’s known in the industry.

5. 2/21/2012 7:09 PM P2 - 5 ANIMATED HOW FAR TO YOU GO? Keep decomposing as long as it makes sense. You wouldn’t decompose so far that the form us lost: example: order loaf of bread, not moles of hydrogen and carbon atoms. Keep decomposing until the elements are “well-known” to people who are good at those things. Judgment call as to how far to go. Is it useful to decompose more? The important thing is that every level is complete, and that every level gets summed into the level above it. ANIMATED HOW FAR TO YOU GO? Keep decomposing as long as it makes sense. You wouldn’t decompose so far that the form us lost: example: order loaf of bread, not moles of hydrogen and carbon atoms. Keep decomposing until the elements are “well-known” to people who are good at those things. Judgment call as to how far to go. Is it useful to decompose more? The important thing is that every level is complete, and that every level gets summed into the level above it.

6. 2/21/2012 7:09 PM P2 - 6 Example: Break Down 100% (1 of 2) ANIMATED Let’s do WBS for the number “100%”. This decomposition / summation analogy applies to concepts, deliverables, resources, etc.ANIMATED Let’s do WBS for the number “100%”. This decomposition / summation analogy applies to concepts, deliverables, resources, etc.

7. 2/21/2012 7:09 PM P2 - 7 Example: Break Down 100% (2 of 2) ANIMATED Note each level adds up to the higher level.ANIMATED Note each level adds up to the higher level.

8. 2/21/2012 7:09 PM P2 - 8 ANIMATED At some point in the decomposition, the entities become rows in a schedule -- no longer elements of the WBS. KEY POINT: The WBS tends to be stable; schedule is dynamic. Schedule rows may change from week to week; WBS elements do not. It is a continuum of decomposition, but thought of differently. WBS uses one type of tool (eg MS Excel); schedule another tool (eg MS Project). ANIMATED At some point in the decomposition, the entities become rows in a schedule -- no longer elements of the WBS. KEY POINT: The WBS tends to be stable; schedule is dynamic. Schedule rows may change from week to week; WBS elements do not. It is a continuum of decomposition, but thought of differently. WBS uses one type of tool (eg MS Excel); schedule another tool (eg MS Project).

9. 2/21/2012 7:09 PM P2 - 9 EXAMPLE. Although technically sophisticated, satellite mission is part of our collective experience: consider Hubble Space Telescope, or International Space Station. There is a mission, driven by the science instruments. They differ mission to mission. The spacecraft bus tends to be the “standard”: attitude control, propulsion, communications. Decompose in product-sense as far as it makes sense; then process. Note customer often specifies level 2 of WBS. Example: NASA request for proposal. You must follow it, else you are non-compliant and make the evaluators job easy – they throw your proposal out! The lower levels of WBS may not be known early on. Example, you know there will be some kind of C&DH, but not how implemented until project proceeds. Example: how many redundant computers. Initially you make informed guesses to produce a credible proposal.EXAMPLE. Although technically sophisticated, satellite mission is part of our collective experience: consider Hubble Space Telescope, or International Space Station. There is a mission, driven by the science instruments. They differ mission to mission. The spacecraft bus tends to be the “standard”: attitude control, propulsion, communications. Decompose in product-sense as far as it makes sense; then process. Note customer often specifies level 2 of WBS. Example: NASA request for proposal. You must follow it, else you are non-compliant and make the evaluators job easy – they throw your proposal out! The lower levels of WBS may not be known early on. Example, you know there will be some kind of C&DH, but not how implemented until project proceeds. Example: how many redundant computers. Initially you make informed guesses to produce a credible proposal.

10. 2/21/2012 7:09 PM P2 - 10 WBS for Brain Surgery (tree format) “The actual operation in surgery is but one part of the process of surgical care; diagnosis, preoperative care, and postoperative management being of equal importance in differing circumstances.” [Ref 1-p1] “Meticulous planning of each of the steps required to perform the best possible operation for each patient should be carried out as aggressively as the surgery itself.” [Ref 2-p5] Note that “anyone” can understand this WBS down to level 3 or 4, because it doesn’t say how to perform surgery, only what the scope is. From our common experience with medical procedures, we are familiar with these concepts and terms. “The actual operation in surgery is but one part of the process of surgical care; diagnosis, preoperative care, and postoperative management being of equal importance in differing circumstances.” [Ref 1-p1] “Meticulous planning of each of the steps required to perform the best possible operation for each patient should be carried out as aggressively as the surgery itself.” [Ref 2-p5] Note that “anyone” can understand this WBS down to level 3 or 4, because it doesn’t say how to perform surgery, only what the scope is. From our common experience with medical procedures, we are familiar with these concepts and terms.

11. 2/21/2012 7:09 PM P2 - 11 WBS for Brain Surgery (indented list)

12. 2/21/2012 7:09 PM P2 - 12 How come we go to all this trouble developing a WBS? It’s used for everything! Schedule vert traceability refers to flow-down of milestones. Schedule horiz traceability refers to the propagation of date dependencies as in critical path network diagram. Note risk = (engineering definition) = probability of occurrence times consequences. Example of risk mitigation: at the very least identifying the risk items; might take alternative approaches; or start risky elements sooner. Last bullet is important; the rest of the project team can’t wait to start hammering away on the fun parts of the product. In the meantime the Project Manager has to think though all the unpleasant activities like acceptance tests and deliverable documentation.How come we go to all this trouble developing a WBS? It’s used for everything! Schedule vert traceability refers to flow-down of milestones. Schedule horiz traceability refers to the propagation of date dependencies as in critical path network diagram. Note risk = (engineering definition) = probability of occurrence times consequences. Example of risk mitigation: at the very least identifying the risk items; might take alternative approaches; or start risky elements sooner. Last bullet is important; the rest of the project team can’t wait to start hammering away on the fun parts of the product. In the meantime the Project Manager has to think though all the unpleasant activities like acceptance tests and deliverable documentation.

13. 2/21/2012 7:09 PM P2 - 13 WBS development is part science, part art. No WBS is entirely right, or entirely wrong. There are many measures of “goodness” and maximizing one measure might diminish another. (Example: more detail in the WBS to increase “understanding and communication” means the WBS is bulkier and more difficult to maintain.) (Example: Should you associate training with each lower-level element, or put it all under one element at level 1?) The above list will help you maximize the WBS’s overall goodness. Divisions that minimize interfaces and are stand-alone testable may not be obvious; requires thought to come up with it. Note guideline to associate imbedded software with its hardware. The test “Eliminating one product….costs” is important when using automated cost estimating software such as Microframe Program Manager. The ultimate measure: is the WBS useful? Also: any topic that is a real “lightening rod” in the organization should be visible at a high level. Example: safety, if on an earlier project someone was hurt. Example: if customers had complained about lack of adequate training in the past. Pass out extracts from MIL-HDBK-881 Work Breakdown Structure Handbook. Note it’s available on website in reference. Note the WBS Dictionary included therein; articulates what’s included and also what’s intended to be excluded.WBS development is part science, part art. No WBS is entirely right, or entirely wrong. There are many measures of “goodness” and maximizing one measure might diminish another. (Example: more detail in the WBS to increase “understanding and communication” means the WBS is bulkier and more difficult to maintain.) (Example: Should you associate training with each lower-level element, or put it all under one element at level 1?) The above list will help you maximize the WBS’s overall goodness. Divisions that minimize interfaces and are stand-alone testable may not be obvious; requires thought to come up with it. Note guideline to associate imbedded software with its hardware. The test “Eliminating one product….costs” is important when using automated cost estimating software such as Microframe Program Manager. The ultimate measure: is the WBS useful? Also: any topic that is a real “lightening rod” in the organization should be visible at a high level. Example: safety, if on an earlier project someone was hurt. Example: if customers had complained about lack of adequate training in the past. Pass out extracts from MIL-HDBK-881 Work Breakdown Structure Handbook. Note it’s available on website in reference. Note the WBS Dictionary included therein; articulates what’s included and also what’s intended to be excluded.

14. 2/21/2012 7:09 PM P2 - 14 WBS Levels & Numbering Notation ANIMATED Contrast tree to indented list (outline). One manager (Warren Dunham) had this insight: The top 3 levels are of interest and concern to the funders. Whereas the actual worker’s concerns begin at level 5. Hard to bridge that gap between level 3 and 5! You can draw tree with PowerPoint org chart function. Graphic tree structure is good for high-level briefing. You are forced to use the indented list view when you do a cost estimate, because tools (e.g. Excel) utilize that view.ANIMATED Contrast tree to indented list (outline). One manager (Warren Dunham) had this insight: The top 3 levels are of interest and concern to the funders. Whereas the actual worker’s concerns begin at level 5. Hard to bridge that gap between level 3 and 5! You can draw tree with PowerPoint org chart function. Graphic tree structure is good for high-level briefing. You are forced to use the indented list view when you do a cost estimate, because tools (e.g. Excel) utilize that view.

15. 2/21/2012 7:09 PM P2 - 15 Scenario: a new person to company has a great idea for a new product. You need to develop a WBS for this project, so that you can present it to the company president, so that he or she can raise the necessary funding. The product idea is a good one, but you have to “bet the company on it”. Therefore you really need to anticipate the elements. You don’t want the president to stop you during the presentation and angrily say “What about ____??!!” Scenario: a new person to company has a great idea for a new product. You need to develop a WBS for this project, so that you can present it to the company president, so that he or she can raise the necessary funding. The product idea is a good one, but you have to “bet the company on it”. Therefore you really need to anticipate the elements. You don’t want the president to stop you during the presentation and angrily say “What about ____??!!”

16. 2/21/2012 7:09 PM P2 - 16 Key Concept: The WBS is a product-oriented, hierarchical list of the work to be done. The program plan is linked to the system design through the upper levels of the WBS. If you could do only one planning task, it should be the Work Breakdown Structure. The classic definition of the WBS is “a product-oriented hierarchical breakdown of goods and services” -- goods in the sense of deliverable products; services in the sense of level-of-effort tasks such as system engineering and quality assurance. If you could do only one planning task, it should be the Work Breakdown Structure. The classic definition of the WBS is “a product-oriented hierarchical breakdown of goods and services” -- goods in the sense of deliverable products; services in the sense of level-of-effort tasks such as system engineering and quality assurance.

17. 2/21/2012 7:09 PM P2 - 17 Where Does the Work Get Done?!! ANIMATED People often ask about the WBS: Where is the work?? Where is engineering? Where is fabrication?! Answer: work is at the lower level. Nouns are product-oriented; verbs are process oriented. Combine process with product, get work to be done! Reminder: the expertise is in the process (and the equipment). Process would be dictated by Project Manager only at highest level of process. Example: required design reviews and criteria for entrance into next stage of development. Project Manager tells staff what to build; staff tells Project Manager what process to be they’ll use. ANIMATED People often ask about the WBS: Where is the work?? Where is engineering? Where is fabrication?! Answer: work is at the lower level. Nouns are product-oriented; verbs are process oriented. Combine process with product, get work to be done! Reminder: the expertise is in the process (and the equipment). Process would be dictated by Project Manager only at highest level of process. Example: required design reviews and criteria for entrance into next stage of development. Project Manager tells staff what to build; staff tells Project Manager what process to be they’ll use.

18. 2/21/2012 7:09 PM P2 - 18 Typical WBS for a State CVISN Program Point to the WBS section, number 15. Show how WBS is used. Show some of the templates like the procurement template or resource estimate template. Note evaluation at Level 2 – needs to be visible.Point to the WBS section, number 15. Show how WBS is used. Show some of the templates like the procurement template or resource estimate template. Note evaluation at Level 2 – needs to be visible.

19. 2/21/2012 7:09 PM P2 - 19 Elements Not to Include in WBS Do not use the structure of the contractor’s organization as the basis of a WBS. At the top levels do not begin by decomposing into the functions or cost categories associated with developing those products. ANIMATED Org chart looks like an upside-down tree, so some people start with that! Functions or cost categories don’t tell you anything about the product. ANIMATED Org chart looks like an upside-down tree, so some people start with that! Functions or cost categories don’t tell you anything about the product.

20. 2/21/2012 7:09 PM P2 - 20 Common Errors When Creating WBS Does not include all of the work. Example: The project calls for a prototype and a final version, but the WBS shows only one of these. Or it shows the prototype in detail, and then simply lists the other without showing the work needed to produce it. The level of detail is not sufficient to manage the program. Example: The big pieces may be there, but they are not broken down sufficiently to enable the work to be assigned, tracked, and managed. (The test would be: Can you use this WBS to make a good, detailed CPM network?) Important but not readily apparent steps are left out. Example: The omission of integration and testing. The work is there, but it’s not arranged logically. Example: Lower-level product integration and testing is there, but its off on its own and you cannot tell what it is to be applied to or when. The above list was compiled from student errors on homeworks, by an instructor. Every time two pieces come together, there is an integration task to perform. Happens at every level. If you omit planning it, you will fall behind in schedule for sure, and probably cost too. The above list was compiled from student errors on homeworks, by an instructor. Every time two pieces come together, there is an integration task to perform. Happens at every level. If you omit planning it, you will fall behind in schedule for sure, and probably cost too.

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