What is Evolution?
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What is Evolution?. The kind we’re talking about is sometimes called organic evolution to distinguish it from non-biological changes over time. Working definition: Evolution is the progressive change in organisms over time. Evolution’s Core Principles. Natural selection.

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What is Evolution?

The kind we’re talking about is sometimes called organic evolution to distinguish it from non-biological changes over time.

Working definition: Evolution is the progressive change in organisms over time.


Evolution’s Core Principles

Natural selection.


Evolution’s Core Principles

Common descent with modification.


Darwin’s Voyage of Discovery

A reconstruction of the HMS Beagle sailing off Patagonia.



Charles Lyell – uniformatarianism.

1797-1875

Georges Cuvier – species extinction.

1769-1832

Darwin’s Ideas Did Not Develop in a Vacuum

Contributor’s to Darwin’s thinking included:


Thomas Malthus – struggle for existence.

1766-1834

Jean Baptiste de Lamarck – evolution by acquired characteristics.

1744-1829

Darwin’s Ideas Did Not Develop in a Vacuum

Contributor’s to Darwin’s thinking included:


Alfred Russel Wallace Independently Drew the Same Conclusions as Darwin

Papers from Wallace and Darwin were jointly presented (with little impact) to the Linnaean Society in 1858.


Darwin’s Observations and Inferences Conclusions as Darwin

Observation 1: Left unchecked, the number of organisms of each species will increase exponentially, generation to generation.

Observation 2: In nature, populations tend to remain stable in size.

Observation 3: Environmental resources are limited.

Inference 1: Production of more individuals than can be supported by the environment leads to a struggle for existence among individuals, with only a fraction of offspring surviving in each generation.


Darwin’s Observations and Inferences Conclusions as Darwin

Observation 4: Individuals of a population vary extensively in their characteristics with no two individuals being exactly alike.

Observation 5: Much of this variation between individuals is heritable.


Darwin’s Observations and Inferences Conclusions as Darwin

Inference 2: Survival in the struggle for existence is not random, but depends in part on the heritable characteristics of individuals. Individuals who inherit characteristics most fit for their environment are likely to leave more offspring than less fit individuals.


Darwin’s Observations and Inferences Conclusions as Darwin

Inference 3: The unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce leads to a gradual change in a population, with favorable characteristics accumulating over generations (natural selection).

Taken together, these three inferences are a statement of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution.


Darwin in his early years. Conclusions as Darwin

The Weak Link of Genetics and the Modern Synthesis

A major problem in Darwin’s theory was the lack of a mechanism to explain natural selection.

How could favorable variations be transmitted to later generations?

With the rediscovery of Mendel’s work and its vast extension in the first half of the 20th century, the missing link in evolutionary theory was forged.

Darwinian theory supported by genetics is known as the modern synthesis.


An early disparaging view of evolutionary theory and its creator.

1925

Discomfort With Evolution

The upheaval surrounding evolution began with publication of On the Origin of Species and continues nearly 150 years later.


Why is this little sticker so controversial
Why is this little sticker creator.so controversial?

Source: http://www.swarthmore.edu/NatSci/cpurrin1/textbookdisclaimers/CobbDisclaimer.jpg


November, 2005 creator.

Discomfort With Evolution


December, 2005 creator.

Discomfort With Evolution



Evidence for Evolution - Comparative Morphology creator.

Why use the same skeletal plan for these very different appendages?


Evidence for Evolution - Comparative Embryology creator.

Why do embryos of different animals pass through a similar developmental stage?

Recent discoveries of the conservation of molecular mechanisms of development are even more compelling.


Evidence of Evolution –Conservation and Diversification at the Molecular Level

Why should different organism possess related genes?

Why does the degree of relationship of genes match their degree of relationship established by other methods?


Evolution of pesticide resistance in response to selection. the Molecular Level

Evidence for Evolution – Evolution Observed


Evidence for Evolution – Evolution Observed the Molecular Level

Evolution of drug-resistance in HIV


Evolutionary Time Scales the Molecular Level

Macroevolution: Long time scale events that create and eliminate species.


Evolution the Molecular Level

Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. – Theodosius Dobzhansky

Charles Darwin in later years


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