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Securing Independence, Defining Nationhood, 1776-1788. AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Fall 2010. Focus Questions. What factors enabled the Americans to defeat the British in the American Revolution?

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Securing Independence, Defining Nationhood, 1776-1788

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Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

Securing Independence, Defining Nationhood, 1776-1788

AP US History

East High School

Mr. Peterson

Fall 2010

Focus questions

Focus Questions

  • What factors enabled the Americans to defeat the British in the American Revolution?

  • How did the Revolution affect relationships among Americans of different classes, races, and genders?

  • What political concerns were reflected in the first state constitutions and Articles of Confederation?

  • What were the principal issues dividing proponents and opponents of the new federal Constitution?

The prospects of war

“unconditional submission to the tyranny of irritated ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”

The Prospects of War

Loyalists and other british sympathizers

Loyalists and Other British Sympathizers

  • Tories

    • “A Tory was a thing with a head in England, a body in America, and a neck that needed stretching.” –Whig jest

  • Favored staying in empire

    • Approx. 20% of whites (maybe 1/3)

    • Concentrated in NY, NJ, GA, backcountry of NC and SC

    • Fought with British

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

p. 155

Non white supporters of britain

Non-white Supporters of Britain

  • Blacks

    • Many slaves went to Dunmore’s ranks

    • Hoped for freedom

  • Iroquois divided

    • Most followed Joseph Brant-Mohawk chief

    • Oneida and Tuscaroras supported rebels

The opposing sides british

The Opposing Sides-British

  • 11 million Britons to 2.5 million colonists

    • 1/3 of colonists slaves or loyalists

  • Britain had world’s greatest navy

  • Largest army-100,000+ in America

    • Well-trained

    • Needed 20,000 German mercenaries

  • Cutbacks after Seven Years War

The opposing sides americans

The Opposing Sides-Americans

  • Americans used to serving in militias

    • Short terms

    • Guerilla style skirmishes

  • Continental Army needed to fight European style

    • Discipline and training needed

    • Lost many battles early in war

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

p. 157

Who had the advantage

Who Had the Advantage?

  • British advantages

    • Greatest navy and army

    • Resources of an empire

    • Experience

    • Command structure

  • Americans advantages

    • Home-field advantage

    • Deeply committed population (Patriots)

    • Substantial aid from France

War and peace 1776 1783

War and Peace, 1776-1783

Shifting fortunes in the north 1776 1778

Shifting Fortunes in the North, 1776-1778

  • Bunker Hill

  • Philadelphia threatened

    • Christmas night attack at Trenton

    • Hessians routed

    • On to Princeton

    • British forced to move from NJ to NY

  • Battle of Saratoga

    • Turning point in war

    • France recognizes US

    • Spain and Holland declare war on Britain

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

Map 6-1, p. 158

Baron von steuben

Baron von Steuben

  • Arrives at Valley Forge, Feb. 1778

    • Trains American army

    • Victory at Battle of Monmouth

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

p. 159

The war in the west 1776 1782

The War in the West, 1776-1782

  • Retaliatory expeditions against Cherokees

  • George Rogers Clark defeats Shawnees

  • John Sullivan defeats Brant and Iroquois

  • Not very significant to outcome of war, but important to future shape of US

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

Map 6-2, p. 162

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

p. 163

Victory in the south 1778 1781

Victory in the South, 1778-1781

  • Americans lose at Camden, SC

  • Nathanael Greene forces Cornwallis and British out of Carolina backcountry

  • Battle of Yorktown

    • Washington and Lafayette converge and trap British

    • Cornwallis surrenders Oct. 19, 1781

    • Last real battle of war

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

Map 6-3, p. 164

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

p. 165

Peace at last 1782 1783

Peace at Last, 1782-1783

  • Britain negotiate for peace

    • Treaty of Paris, 1783

      • American independence recognized

      • All lands east of Mississippi to Americans

  • 20,000 Americans living west of Appalachians

  • Florida returned to Spain

  • British refuse tom honor pledge to abandon forts in NW and return slaves

A heavy price

A Heavy Price

  • 5% of free males died fighting British

    • Only Civil War greater proportion

  • Many loyalists, slaves, Indians exiled

    • Many to Canada

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

Loyalists arrive in Canada

The revolution and social change

The Revolution and Social Change

Egalitarianism among white men

Egalitarianism among White Men

  • War experience leads to change in attitudes

    • Soldiers retain self-esteem and insist on respect from elites

  • Democratic tendencies not welcomed by all

    • Increased equality for white males with property

White women in wartime

White Women in Wartime

  • “camp followers”

  • Changing roles for women at home

  • Raising money for soldiers

  • Abigail Adams

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

p. 168

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

“By the way, in the new code of laws which I suppose it will be necessary for you to make, I desire you would remember the ladies and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the Husbands.”-Abigail Adams, in a letter to her husband John (1776)

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

Molly Pitcher

A revolution for african americans

A Revolution for African Americans

  • Wartime opportunities due to manpower shortages

    • Quakers begin push to end slavery

    • VT, PA, MA, RI, and CT phase out slavery

    • Slave importation ended except in SC and GA

  • Difficult situation for free blacks

    • Prince Hall leads way in protesting slavery

    • Slave poet Phillis Wheatley

    • More freedom in some states

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

“Liberty is a jewel which was handed Down to man from the cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

Prince Hall

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

p. 170

Native americans and the revolution

Native Americans and the Revolution

  • Suffered more than any other group

    • Many adopt European style lives and religion

    • Some appeal to Congress

    • Still facing disease and alcohol

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

The Murder of Jane McCrea

Forging new governments 1776 1787

Forging New Governments, 1776-1787

From colonies to states

From Colonies to States

  • Equal division of political power for counties and towns

    • Legislatures strengthen, governors weakened

    • Most elected both houses of legislature

  • Republican over democracy

    • Fear of mob rule

  • Change in 1780-MA strengthens executive, greater property qualifications

Formalizing a confederation 1776 1781

Formalizing a Confederation, 1776-1781

  • Articles of Confederation

    • Sent to states in 1777

    • Ratified in 1781

    • US a “firm league of friendship”

  • Weak national government

    • No power to tax or regulate commerce

    • Unicameral legislature

    • Each state one vote

    • Unanimous vote for amendments

    • No independent executive or judiciary

Finance trade and the economy 1781 1786

Finance, Trade, and the Economy, 1781-1786

  • $160 million cost of war

    • Huge public debt

    • Paper money now worthless-Continentals

      • Inflation-”not worth a Contiental”

    • Tax measures stopped by single states

  • Newburgh Conspiracy

    • Some officers threaten coup

    • George Washington able to stop plot

The confederation and the west

The Confederation and the West

  • States relinquish claims in west

  • Ordinance of 1785

    • Procedures for surveying land north of Ohio R.

  • Northwest Ordinance (1787)

    • New steps for creation and admission of states

    • Northwest Territory designated

    • Slavery forbidden in NW

    • Money toward public education

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

Map 6-4, p. 174

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

Map 6-5, p. 176

Native americans and the confederation

Native Americans and the Confederation

  • “a subdued people”

    • New treaties weakened tribes

    • Disunity among Indians in NW

  • Alexander McGillivray leads Creeks against Americans

    • Creeks allowed to keep land

  • Expansion into Spanish claimed territory

    • Jay-Gardoqui Treaty opens Spanish markets, west and south unhappy

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

Little Turtle

Toward a new constitution 1786 1788

Toward a New Constitution, 1786-1788

Shays rebellion 1786 1787

Shays’ Rebellion, 1786-1787

  • Tax increases fuel revolt of Massachusetts farmers

    • Daniel Shays and followers march on Springfield

    • Rebellion quashed

  • Sparks call for general convention to amend Articles of Confederation

The philadelphia convention 1787

The Philadelphia Convention, 1787

  • Instructed by states to suggest amendments to Articles of Confederation dealing with commerce

  • 55 delegates/national perspective

    • Most wealthy

    • Most in 30s and 40s

    • 19 slave owners

    • Over half trained in law

    • Secret proceedings

  • Ready to replace Articles

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

p. 178

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

Washington Addressing the Constiutional Convention

The virginia plan

The Virginia Plan

  • James Madison

  • Strong central government

    • Criticized-”to abolish the State Governments altogether”

  • Congress with tremendous powers

    • Bicameral

    • Both proportional representation

    • Lower house would appoint upper house delegates

    • Both would name executive and judges

The new jersey plan

The New Jersey Plan

  • William Paterson

  • Unicameral legislature

    • Each state with an equal vote

    • Same as Articles

The great comprmoise

The Great Comprmoise

  • Also called Connecticut Compromise

  • A “grand committee” of one delegate per state

    • Upper House/Senate

      • Equal vote

      • Chosen by state legislatures (17th Amendment/1913)

    • Lower House/House of Representatives-proportional representation

      • Direct election by people in states

The constitution

The Constitution

  • Approved September 17, 1787

  • Vigorous national authority

    • “supremacy clause”

    • Authority to:

      • Lay taxes

      • Regulate interstate commerce

      • Conduct diplomacy

      • Raise an army and navy

      • Declare war

      • Use force against states to stop rebellion

      • Coin money

Separation of powers

Separation of Powers

  • Three distinct branhces

    • Legislative

      • Make laws

    • Executive

      • Carry out/enforce laws

    • Judicial

      • Interpret laws

Checks and balances

Checks and Balances

  • Prevent any branch from dominating other two

    • President has power to veto bills, Congress can override veto

    • President conducts diplomacy, Senate ratifies or rejects treaties

    • President appoints officials, Senate confirms or rejects (advice and consent)

    • President and other officials could be impeached by House and removed from office by Senate

    • Independent judiciary-appointed for life/good behavior

Executive power

Executive Power

  • Surprisingly powerful presidency

    • Commander-in-chief of military

    • Supervise foreign relations

    • Veto power over legislation

    • Appointments

  • Electoral College

    • Indirect election of president

  • Assumption that Washington would be 1st president



  • Shared power between national and state governments

  • Limits on central authority

    • National government would limit its activities to small number of roles

      • Foreign affairs

      • National defense

      • Regulating foreign and interstate commerce

      • Coining money

    • Other powers left to states

Three fifths compromise

“Three-fifths” Compromise

  • Counting of slaves in population

    • Southern states wanted slaves counted fully

    • Northern states wanted slaves not to be counted

  • 3/5 of slaves would count for population for representation and taxation

What was left out

What was left out?

  • No allowance for political parties

  • Supremacy of national government implied, but not stated

  • No precise standard of citizenship

Ratification process

Ratification Process

  • “We the People”

  • Special state conventions chosen by voters

The struggle over ratification 1787 1788

The Struggle over Ratification, 1787-1788

  • Federalists

    • Favored ratification

    • Balance relationship between national governments and states

  • Anti-federalists

    • Opposed ratification

    • Feared centralized power

    • Patrick Henry, George Mason

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

Map 6-6, p. 182

The federalist

The Federalist

  • Arguments for ratification

    • Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay

    • Analysis optimistic



  • Bill of Rights promised

  • Delaware first to approve

  • New Hampshire ninth

  • Virginia and New York needed

    • Narrowly approve

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

p. 184

Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 17881

Securing Independence, Defining Nationhood, 1776-1788

AP US History

East High School

Mr. Peterson

Fall 2010

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