Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788
Download
1 / 88

Securing Independence, Defining Nationhood, 1776-1788 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 167 Views
  • Uploaded on

Securing Independence, Defining Nationhood, 1776-1788. AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Fall 2010. Focus Questions. What factors enabled the Americans to defeat the British in the American Revolution?

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Securing Independence, Defining Nationhood, 1776-1788' - cachez


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 1788

Securing Independence, Defining Nationhood, 1776-1788

AP US History

East High School

Mr. Peterson

Fall 2010


Focus questions
Focus Questions

  • What factors enabled the Americans to defeat the British in the American Revolution?

  • How did the Revolution affect relationships among Americans of different classes, races, and genders?

  • What political concerns were reflected in the first state constitutions and Articles of Confederation?

  • What were the principal issues dividing proponents and opponents of the new federal Constitution?


The prospects of war

“unconditional submission to the tyranny of irritated ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”

The Prospects of War


Loyalists and other british sympathizers
Loyalists and Other British Sympathizers ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”

  • Tories

    • “A Tory was a thing with a head in England, a body in America, and a neck that needed stretching.” –Whig jest

  • Favored staying in empire

    • Approx. 20% of whites (maybe 1/3)

    • Concentrated in NY, NJ, GA, backcountry of NC and SC

    • Fought with British


p. 155 ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”


Non white supporters of britain
Non-white Supporters of Britain ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”

  • Blacks

    • Many slaves went to Dunmore’s ranks

    • Hoped for freedom

  • Iroquois divided

    • Most followed Joseph Brant-Mohawk chief

    • Oneida and Tuscaroras supported rebels


The opposing sides british
The Opposing Sides-British ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”

  • 11 million Britons to 2.5 million colonists

    • 1/3 of colonists slaves or loyalists

  • Britain had world’s greatest navy

  • Largest army-100,000+ in America

    • Well-trained

    • Needed 20,000 German mercenaries

  • Cutbacks after Seven Years War


The opposing sides americans
The Opposing Sides-Americans ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”

  • Americans used to serving in militias

    • Short terms

    • Guerilla style skirmishes

  • Continental Army needed to fight European style

    • Discipline and training needed

    • Lost many battles early in war


p. 157 ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”


Who had the advantage
Who Had the Advantage? ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”

  • British advantages

    • Greatest navy and army

    • Resources of an empire

    • Experience

    • Command structure

  • Americans advantages

    • Home-field advantage

    • Deeply committed population (Patriots)

    • Substantial aid from France


War and peace 1776 1783
War and Peace, 1776-1783 ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”


Shifting fortunes in the north 1776 1778
Shifting Fortunes in the North, 1776-1778 ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”

  • Bunker Hill

  • Philadelphia threatened

    • Christmas night attack at Trenton

    • Hessians routed

    • On to Princeton

    • British forced to move from NJ to NY

  • Battle of Saratoga

    • Turning point in war

    • France recognizes US

    • Spain and Holland declare war on Britain


Map 6-1, p. 158 ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”


Baron von steuben
Baron von Steuben ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”

  • Arrives at Valley Forge, Feb. 1778

    • Trains American army

    • Victory at Battle of Monmouth


p. 159 ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”


The war in the west 1776 1782
The War in the West, 1776-1782 ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”

  • Retaliatory expeditions against Cherokees

  • George Rogers Clark defeats Shawnees

  • John Sullivan defeats Brant and Iroquois

  • Not very significant to outcome of war, but important to future shape of US


Map 6-2, p. 162 ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”


p. 163 ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”


Victory in the south 1778 1781
Victory in the South, 1778-1781 ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”

  • Americans lose at Camden, SC

  • Nathanael Greene forces Cornwallis and British out of Carolina backcountry

  • Battle of Yorktown

    • Washington and Lafayette converge and trap British

    • Cornwallis surrenders Oct. 19, 1781

    • Last real battle of war


Map 6-3, p. 164 ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”


p. 165 ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”


Peace at last 1782 1783
Peace at Last, 1782-1783 ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”

  • Britain negotiate for peace

    • Treaty of Paris, 1783

      • American independence recognized

      • All lands east of Mississippi to Americans

  • 20,000 Americans living west of Appalachians

  • Florida returned to Spain

  • British refuse tom honor pledge to abandon forts in NW and return slaves


A heavy price
A Heavy Price ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”

  • 5% of free males died fighting British

    • Only Civil War greater proportion

  • Many loyalists, slaves, Indians exiled

    • Many to Canada


Loyalists arrive in Canada ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”


The revolution and social change
The Revolution and Social Change ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”


Egalitarianism among white men
Egalitarianism among White Men ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”

  • War experience leads to change in attitudes

    • Soldiers retain self-esteem and insist on respect from elites

  • Democratic tendencies not welcomed by all

    • Increased equality for white males with property


White women in wartime
White Women in Wartime ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”

  • “camp followers”

  • Changing roles for women at home

  • Raising money for soldiers

  • Abigail Adams


p. 168 ministers or resistance by force.” –”Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”


“By the way, in the new code of laws which I suppose it will be necessary for you to make, I desire you would remember the ladies and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the Husbands.”-Abigail Adams, in a letter to her husband John (1776)


Molly Pitcher will be necessary for you to make, I desire you would remember the ladies and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the Husbands.”-Abigail Adams, in a letter to her husband John (1776)


A revolution for african americans
A Revolution for African Americans will be necessary for you to make, I desire you would remember the ladies and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the Husbands.”-Abigail Adams, in a letter to her husband John (1776)

  • Wartime opportunities due to manpower shortages

    • Quakers begin push to end slavery

    • VT, PA, MA, RI, and CT phase out slavery

    • Slave importation ended except in SC and GA

  • Difficult situation for free blacks

    • Prince Hall leads way in protesting slavery

    • Slave poet Phillis Wheatley

    • More freedom in some states


“Liberty is a jewel which was handed Down to man from the cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)


Prince Hall cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)


p. 170 cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)


Native americans and the revolution
Native Americans and the Revolution cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

  • Suffered more than any other group

    • Many adopt European style lives and religion

    • Some appeal to Congress

    • Still facing disease and alcohol


The Murder of Jane McCrea cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)


Forging new governments 1776 1787
Forging New Governments, 1776-1787 cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)


From colonies to states
From Colonies to States cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

  • Equal division of political power for counties and towns

    • Legislatures strengthen, governors weakened

    • Most elected both houses of legislature

  • Republican over democracy

    • Fear of mob rule

  • Change in 1780-MA strengthens executive, greater property qualifications


Formalizing a confederation 1776 1781
Formalizing a Confederation, 1776-1781 cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

  • Articles of Confederation

    • Sent to states in 1777

    • Ratified in 1781

    • US a “firm league of friendship”

  • Weak national government

    • No power to tax or regulate commerce

    • Unicameral legislature

    • Each state one vote

    • Unanimous vote for amendments

    • No independent executive or judiciary


Finance trade and the economy 1781 1786
Finance, Trade, and the Economy, 1781-1786 cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

  • $160 million cost of war

    • Huge public debt

    • Paper money now worthless-Continentals

      • Inflation-”not worth a Contiental”

    • Tax measures stopped by single states

  • Newburgh Conspiracy

    • Some officers threaten coup

    • George Washington able to stop plot


The confederation and the west
The Confederation and the West cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

  • States relinquish claims in west

  • Ordinance of 1785

    • Procedures for surveying land north of Ohio R.

  • Northwest Ordinance (1787)

    • New steps for creation and admission of states

    • Northwest Territory designated

    • Slavery forbidden in NW

    • Money toward public education


Map 6-4, p. 174 cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)


Map 6-5, p. 176 cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)


Native americans and the confederation
Native Americans and the Confederation cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

  • “a subdued people”

    • New treaties weakened tribes

    • Disunity among Indians in NW

  • Alexander McGillivray leads Creeks against Americans

    • Creeks allowed to keep land

  • Expansion into Spanish claimed territory

    • Jay-Gardoqui Treaty opens Spanish markets, west and south unhappy


Little Turtle cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)


Toward a new constitution 1786 1788
Toward a New Constitution, 1786-1788 cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)


Shays rebellion 1786 1787
Shays’ Rebellion, 1786-1787 cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

  • Tax increases fuel revolt of Massachusetts farmers

    • Daniel Shays and followers march on Springfield

    • Rebellion quashed

  • Sparks call for general convention to amend Articles of Confederation


The philadelphia convention 1787
The Philadelphia Convention, 1787 cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

  • Instructed by states to suggest amendments to Articles of Confederation dealing with commerce

  • 55 delegates/national perspective

    • Most wealthy

    • Most in 30s and 40s

    • 19 slave owners

    • Over half trained in law

    • Secret proceedings

  • Ready to replace Articles


p. 178 cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)


Washington Addressing the Constiutional Convention cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)


The virginia plan
The Virginia Plan cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

  • James Madison

  • Strong central government

    • Criticized-”to abolish the State Governments altogether”

  • Congress with tremendous powers

    • Bicameral

    • Both proportional representation

    • Lower house would appoint upper house delegates

    • Both would name executive and judges


The new jersey plan
The New Jersey Plan cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

  • William Paterson

  • Unicameral legislature

    • Each state with an equal vote

    • Same as Articles


The great comprmoise
The Great Comprmoise cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

  • Also called Connecticut Compromise

  • A “grand committee” of one delegate per state

    • Upper House/Senate

      • Equal vote

      • Chosen by state legislatures (17th Amendment/1913)

    • Lower House/House of Representatives-proportional representation

      • Direct election by people in states


The constitution
The Constitution cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

  • Approved September 17, 1787

  • Vigorous national authority

    • “supremacy clause”

    • Authority to:

      • Lay taxes

      • Regulate interstate commerce

      • Conduct diplomacy

      • Raise an army and navy

      • Declare war

      • Use force against states to stop rebellion

      • Coin money


Separation of powers
Separation of Powers cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

  • Three distinct branhces

    • Legislative

      • Make laws

    • Executive

      • Carry out/enforce laws

    • Judicial

      • Interpret laws


Checks and balances
Checks and Balances cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

  • Prevent any branch from dominating other two

    • President has power to veto bills, Congress can override veto

    • President conducts diplomacy, Senate ratifies or rejects treaties

    • President appoints officials, Senate confirms or rejects (advice and consent)

    • President and other officials could be impeached by House and removed from office by Senate

    • Independent judiciary-appointed for life/good behavior


Executive power
Executive Power cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

  • Surprisingly powerful presidency

    • Commander-in-chief of military

    • Supervise foreign relations

    • Veto power over legislation

    • Appointments

  • Electoral College

    • Indirect election of president

  • Assumption that Washington would be 1st president


Federalism
Federalism cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

  • Shared power between national and state governments

  • Limits on central authority

    • National government would limit its activities to small number of roles

      • Foreign affairs

      • National defense

      • Regulating foreign and interstate commerce

      • Coining money

    • Other powers left to states


Three fifths compromise
“Three-fifths” Compromise cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

  • Counting of slaves in population

    • Southern states wanted slaves counted fully

    • Northern states wanted slaves not to be counted

  • 3/5 of slaves would count for population for representation and taxation


What was left out
What was left out? cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

  • No allowance for political parties

  • Supremacy of national government implied, but not stated

  • No precise standard of citizenship


Ratification process
Ratification Process cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

  • “We the People”

  • Special state conventions chosen by voters


The struggle over ratification 1787 1788
The Struggle over Ratification, 1787-1788 cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

  • Federalists

    • Favored ratification

    • Balance relationship between national governments and states

  • Anti-federalists

    • Opposed ratification

    • Feared centralized power

    • Patrick Henry, George Mason


Map 6-6, p. 182 cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)


The federalist
The Federalist cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

  • Arguments for ratification

    • Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay

    • Analysis optimistic


Ratification
Ratification cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

  • Bill of Rights promised

  • Delaware first to approve

  • New Hampshire ninth

  • Virginia and New York needed

    • Narrowly approve


p. 184 cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)


Securing independence defining nationhood 1776 17881

Securing Independence, Defining Nationhood, 1776-1788 cabinet of heaven. Even an African has Equally good a right to his Liberty in common with Englishmen…Shall a man’s Couler (Color) Be the Decisive Criterion whereby to Judg (judge) of his natural right?”—Lemuel Hayes (1776)

AP US History

East High School

Mr. Peterson

Fall 2010


ad