Logistics of biomass supply
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Logistics of Biomass Supply. Agricultural crops and residues. Shahab Sokhansanj, Ph.D., P.Eng. Bioenergy Resources & Engineering Systems Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Scope. Introduction Production and accessible quantities Feedstock supply chains – formats Solutions and cost targets

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Logistics of Biomass Supply

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Logistics of biomass supply

Logistics of Biomass Supply

Agricultural crops and residues

Shahab Sokhansanj, Ph.D., P.Eng.

Bioenergy Resources & Engineering Systems

Oak Ridge National Laboratory


Scope

Scope

  • Introduction

  • Production and accessible quantities

  • Feedstock supply chains – formats

  • Solutions and cost targets

  • Analysis tools for optimum supply logistics

  • Concluding remarks

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Logistics of biomass supply

DOE Biorefining Industry 2030 Goals

Introduction

Displace a significant fraction of gasoline demand

~ 60 billion gallons/year by 2030

~1.3 Billion tons/yr Biomass Potential in the U.S.

Sugar Platform

Syngas Platform

http://bioenergy.ornl.gov

(Perlack et al. 2005)

Including Corn Grain, an Estimated 600 – 700 Million Tons of Biomass per Year is Needed for 60 B gal of ethanol.

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What is the time frame for required feedstock tonnages

What is the Time-Frame for Required Feedstock Tonnages?

… Introduction

  • 2012 – 2015 Time Frame:

  • Grain Ethanol 7-8 billion gal.

  • Cellulosic Ethanol 3-4 billion gal. (estimated 35-45 M tons biomass)

  • 2030 Time Frame:

  • Grain Ethanol 13-14 billion gal.

  • Cellulosic Ethanol 40-50 billion gal. (estimated 400-500 M tons biomass)

Chart representing ethanol volumes predicted from the high oil case using the transition model for the 30x30 NREL report., 2006.

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Scope1

Scope

  • Introduction

  • Production and accessible quantities

  • Feedstock supply chains – formats

  • Barriers and cost targets

  • Analysis tools for optimum supply logistics

  • Concluding remarks

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Biomass availability

Biomass availability

Current resource availability and future resource potential: agricultural crop residues and perennial energy crops

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Biomass availability subject to constraints

Biomass availability subject to constraints

Farm gate prices for stover is a determining factor on the amount of available stover

Soil conservation requirements limit the available volumes

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Estimates of biomass distribution and biorefining capacities

Estimates of biomass distribution and biorefining capacities

Source: ORNL Robert Perlack, 2006

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Distribution

Distribution

Logging residue

Stover

Switchgrass

Biomass moisture

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Scope2

Scope

  • Introduction

  • Production and accessible quantities

  • Feedstock supply chains – formats

  • Solutions and cost targets

  • Analysis tools for optimum supply logistics

  • Concluding remarks

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Logistics of biomass supply

The Supply chain

Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) Model

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Logistics of biomass supply

Forms of biomass

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Two major technological barriers

Two major technological barriers

  • Bulkiness

  • High water content

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Energy density of biomass

Energy density of biomass

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Estimated field moisture content

Estimated Field Moisture Content

An estimate of biomass moisture content at harvest

Source: (ORNL, Ethan Davis & Robert Perlack, 2007)

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Scope3

Scope

  • Introduction

  • Production and accessible quantities

  • Feedstock supply chains – formats

  • Solutions and cost targets

  • Analysis tools for optimum supply logistics

  • Conclusions

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Logistics of biomass supply

Densification/granulation

Bulk density

60 kg/m3

Bulk density

600 kg/m3

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Logistics of biomass supply

Optimum form of biomass

Source: ORNL, Sokhansanj, 2005)

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Logistics of biomass supply

Storage and handling

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Scope4

Scope

  • Introduction

  • Production and accessible quantities

  • Feedstock supply chains – formats

  • Solutions and cost targets

  • Analysis tools for optimum supply logistics

  • Concluding remarks

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Logistics of biomass supply

Biorefinery Siting with GIS tools - ORIBAS

Analysis team, ORNL (Craig Brandt, 2007)

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Integrated biomass supply analysis logistics ibsal

Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis & Logistics - IBSAL

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Logistics of biomass supply

Modeling Tools

Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis & Logistics (IBSAL)

IBSAL library contains modules for assembling a production/transport scenario. Input and output communication with the program are through EXCEL Workbooks and Worksheets

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Scope5

Scope

  • Introduction

  • Production and accessible quantities

  • Feedstock supply chains – formats

  • Solutions and cost targets

  • Analysis tools for optimum supply logistics

  • Concluding remarks

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Technical targets

Technical Targets

Source: OBP Feedstock Platform Multi-Year Program Plan, 2007

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Biomass feedstock cost target and metrics

Biomass Feedstock Cost Target and Metrics

The cost equation

Efficiency [$/hr]

Quality

[$/ton]

Grower Payment

[$/ton]

+

+

$/ton =

Capacity [ton/hr]

Therefore

$35/ton =

$10-$50/ton

+

$25/ton

  • Feedstock Resource R&D Plan Contributes:

  • Analysis and characterization

  • Projections based on technology development and supply demand assumptions

  • Technology development through “Regional” and “Office of Science” Partnerships

  • Feedstock Supply System R&D Plan Contributes:

  • Engineering Designs

  • Technology Development

2012 Industry initiation/low demand Cost Target (2002$)

Source: Idaho National Laboratory (Richard Hess, 2007)

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Acknowledgment

Acknowledgment

  • Bioenergy Resources & Engineering Systems Team, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  • Feedstock Engineering Team, Idaho National Laboratory

  • Office of Biomass Program, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, DOE

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