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High-energy heavy-ion collisions viewed with v 2 , singles and HBT measurements.

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High-energy heavy-ion collisions viewed

with v2, singles and HBT measurements.

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

v2 – initial geometry and partonic flow and jets

singles(ratio and spectra) – chemical/thermal f.o.

HBT – space-time information

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Elastic scattering

and kinetic freeze-out

TC=170 MeV

eC=0.5 GeV/fm3

Hadronic interactionand chemical freeze-out

QGP and

Hydro. expansion

initial state

?

?

Time

pre-equilibrium

Hadronization

Decreasing energy density

高エネルギー重イオン衝突

における衝突領域の時間発展

v2

particle ratio

particle spectra

HBT

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

sqrt(sNN)=200GeV with

Relativistic Heavy Ion

Collider (RHIC) at BNL

PHENIX

mid-rapidity hadron/electron/

photon spectrometer

Forward-rapidity muon

spectrometer

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Dch/PC1,2,3 : tracking

Tof : hadron PID

Rich : electron PID

Emcal : electron/photon PID

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

-6 -3 0 3 6

h

Reaction plane detectors in PHENIX

CNT

Beam-beam counter

(BBC) |h|=3~4

64pmts in each BBC

charged particles

Muon arm +

Silicon multiplicity

(MVD) endcap

MVD

BBC

ZDC/

SMD

collision point

South

North

beam line

Zero Degree Calorimeter

Shower-Max Detector

Spectator neutron energy

Beam position

two central arms

(CNT) |h|<0.35

Dch,PCs,TOF,EMCAL

tracking, momentum, PID

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

hadrons

Target

Projectile

parton

Reaction plane

Reaction plane

b:impact parameter

initial geometry

final momentum anisotropy

A+A

p+p

Experimentally, the R.P. is defined by the event anisotropy by itself.

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

SMD1 (South)

SMD2 (North)

16ch. PMT “M16”

Y (cm)

Shower

Maximum

Detector

(SMD)

beam spot

distribution

X (cm)

X (cm)

WLS fibers

FSMD1

FSMD2

(Y-CY)/sY

Scintillator strips

horizontal-strips

vertical-strips

(X-CX)/sX

(X-CX)/sX

SMD

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

FSMD1-p vs FSMD2

FSMD-p vs FBBC

back-to-back

back-to-back

spectator neutrons vs

ps from participants

are flowing opposite.

F2BBC1vs F2BBC2

F2MVD1vs F2MVD2

F2BBCvs F2MVD

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

charged particles

(pions) at mid h

beam

beam line

reaction plane

-p 0 p fparticle-FR.P. (rad)

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

indication of v2 saturation at RHIC energy

PHOBOS : nucl-ex/0406021

PHENIX Preliminary

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

hydro is really good to be truth!!

What will happen with resonances?

Resonance effects are important in single spectra, but not too much in v2, because of pT shift of heavy particles having smaller v2 and linear pT dependence of v2.

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

pT shift is the dominant effect compared to the smearing given by the opening angle.

Phys.Lett. B597 (2004) 328-332, X. Dong et.al.

Phys.Rev. C70 (2004) 024901, V. Greco et.al

Pion deviation is explained

by resonance decays

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Data prefer “quark coalescence / recombination” based picture rather than “hydro + jet” picture at intermediate pT.

quark

coalescence

QGP

hydro + jet

recombination + fragmentation

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

minimum bias Au+Au at sNN = 200 GeV

Almost NO

mass ordering

PHENIX preliminary

Similar effect from the time-difference is seen in v2

quark + hadron flow

SPS

PHENIX preliminary

初期離脱

some remaining

mass ordering

Tfo

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

recombination + fragmentation

Jets dominate the high pT part of spectra.

And they (jets)

are suppressed.

PHENIX

STAR

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

charmed e+,e- pT distribution

dN/dy = A (Ncoll)

PHENIX Preliminary

PHENIX Preliminary

Charm quarks are not suppressed w.r.t. binary scaling compared to the light quarks, but it could be enhanced and suppressed (looked like binary scaled). The v2 of charm would give a hint for the answer to the question.

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

charmed e+e- v2

STAR SQM04

If charm quarks also flow, charm quarks are thermalized and / or suppressed similarly to the light quarks.

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

1 + (g pQCD direct x Ncoll) / gphenix backgrd Vogelsang NLO

Run2 AuAu 200 GeV

1 + (g pQCD direct x Ncoll) / (gphenix pp backgrd x Ncoll)

PHENIX Preliminary

Direct photons are enhanced w.r.t. p0 production, but it’s just because p0 is suppressed, and the direct photons are in fact binary scaled.

[w/ the real, suppressed background]

PHENIX Preliminary

AuAu 200 GeV

Central 0-10%

pT (GeV/c)

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

curves, gray box : sys. error

Note :

Inclusive photon = including all of the decay effect from hadrons

, 200 GeV Au+Au

, 200 GeV Au+Au

, 200 GeV Au+Au

phenix preliminary

phenix preliminary

phenix preliminary

The difference here and the g/p0 ratio will give us a measure of direct g v2.

pT [GeV/c]

Direct photons should not have any flow by definition, but …

Alternatively g/p0 ratio can be measured by assuming v2g=0.

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

hadron-hadron correlation (full pT reference)

1.1

1.0

0.9

Au+Au 200GeV PHENIX preliminary

1<pT(associate)<1.5GeV

Another way to get the v2 : (v2)2 is given by the pair correlation

harmonic

function

fixed to the

measured v2

harmonic +

near-side +

Far-side

Gauss

function fit

harmonic +

near-side

Gauss

function fit

pure

harmonic

function fit

1.1

1.0

0.9

2.5<pT(associate)<3GeV

Ways to reduce the jet correlation with additional Gauss terms

0. p

0. p

0. p

f1-f2 (rad)

A{1+2 (v2)2 cos(2Df)} + Gauss term

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Reac. plane v2 does have less non-flow because of the h gap.

Non-flow are removed in 2 part. corr. 2nd cumulant …

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

}nucl-ex/0305013

Au+Au 200 GeV

Au+Au 200 GeV

v2 reduction of charged particles in the previous page could be enlarged by the baryon/meson ratio.

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

The difference here is given by the real flow (v2).

STAR

2 particle correlation

(v2 + non-flow)

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

STAR : nucl-ex/0409033

non-flow reduced

v2{2}

v2{RP}

v2{RP}

v2{2}

v2{4}

STAR Preliminary

Jet suppression ends somewhere …

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

old STAR data

semi-old STAR data

no jet-quenching

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

STAR preliminary

in between

out-of-plane pair

20-60%

trigger particle

in the selected

angular window

r.p.

track1 - track2|

20-60%

Q: Are jets source of v2?

Q: Does reaction zone

make flowing jets?

leading parton

hadrons

Proof of the jet quenching

and the source of v2 at high pT

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

measured v2 and resolution

coalescence of jet-fragmentation could be one of the source of v2

flow subtracted

pTtrigger > 3GeV/c

1 < pTassociated < 2 GeV/c

in-plane pair

in between pair

out-of-plane pair

real/mixed

PHENIX preliminary

PHENIX preliminary

0 p

0 p

Df (rad)

Df (rad)

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Associated particles pT distributions

4 < pTtrig < 6 GeV/c

re-distributed lost energy

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

RHIC

非弾性散乱の終了

化学的フリーズアウト

Tch : 化学的フリーズアウト温度

mB : バリオン化学ポテンシャル

mｓ: ストレンジネス化学ポテンシャル

gｓ: ストレンジネス平衡

SPS

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Tch

<b>

200

400

600

dNch/dh

history of temperature

initial temperature

from the energy density

phase transition at

critical temperature

chemical freeze-out

temperature

thermal freeze-out

temperature

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

クォーク数(バリオン／メソン）によるスケーリング則クォーク数(バリオン／メソン）によるスケーリング則

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

√s=200 GeV

90

90

d+Au

Vf (fm3)

80

80

N (fm2)

70

70

60

60

50

50

40

40

30

30

p+p

20

20

10

10

preliminary

0

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

(1) pT vector randomized

(2) pT vector aligned with rT vector

(3) stronger |pT| vs time correlation

(4) apply (2) and (3) simultaneously

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

The ellipse is still vertical (negative w.r.t. R.P.), but |e| is smaller than at AGS (closer to circle)

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

E895

E895

new source imaging technique (coulomb included)

indication of the large (exponential/non-gaussian) source

core-core / halo-halo / core-halo cross term

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Spectra

Source size (HBT)

nucl-th/0311102 and nucl-th/0310040

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

initial geometry and partonic (and hadronic) flow

v2 and its relation to jet quenching

(partonic and) hadronic flow + chemical/thermal freeze-out

singles (ratio and spectra)

hadronic flow and space-momentum correlation

HBT - space-time information

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

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