. Other media includes billboards, magazines, radios, newspapers, books.In 1991, Playboy, had 3,488,006 subscribers while Newsweek had 3,211,958. Themes in Media. Underrepresentation of women.Stereotyped presentation of men and women.Men are portrayed as aggressive, dominant, and engaged in excit
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1. Gender, Culture, and Media Media reflect cultural values
Nearly all Americans (98.3%) own a tv.
Well over half own VCRs.
60.2% subscribed to cable.
89% to 94% of the American population watch tv on any given day.
2. Other media includes billboards, magazines, radios, newspapers, books.
In 1991, Playboy, had 3,488,006 subscribers while Newsweek had 3,211,958
3. Themes in Media Underrepresentation of women.
Stereotyped presentation of men and women.
Men are portrayed as aggressive, dominant, and engaged in exciting activities.
Media have created 2 images of women: good women and bad ones.
4. Stereotypical images of relationships between men and women.
Women’s dependence/Men’s independence
Men’s authority/women’s incompetence
Women as primary caregivers/men as caretakers.
Women as victims and sex objects/men as aggressors.
5. Implications of Media Representation of gender Fostering unrealistic and limited gender ideals. Images of men and women are unrealistic.
Research suggests that the unrealistic ideals in popular media do influence how we feel about ourselves and our relationships.
6. For adolescents, radio is a major influence, with the average listening time being 5 hours/day.
Readers of self-help books experienced more than typical amounts of frustration and disappointment when their relationships failed to meet the ideals promoted by media.
7. Gender comparisons in social and personality Social constructionist explanation
We construct or invent our own versions of reality, based on prior experiences in our culture.
Everyday we construct what it means to be male and female.
8. Factors influencing social/ personality gender difference Gender differences are largest when behavior is measured in terms of self-report. (women are more likely than men to report nurturance)
Gender differences are largest when other people are present (women react (+) when others are nearby)
9. Gender differences are largest when gender is prominent and other shared roles are minimized. In a singles bar, gender is emphasized.
Gender differences are largest when the behavior requires specific gender-related skills. Men might be especially likely to offer to change a tire.
10. Communication patterns Verbal communication
Talkativeness: Males are typically more talkative, based on data gathered in elementary classrooms, college classrooms, and college students’ conversations.
In the study by Spender (1989) of faculty conversations, men spoke 58% to 75% of the time.
11. Language style: Men use more slang.
In conversations with men, women use disclaimers or tag questions.
The most popular topics for both men and women were work and money.
Women talked about men about 4 times as much as men talked about women.
Men were more likely to talk about hobbies.
12. Percentage of time females/ males discussed 5 topics.
13. Non-verbal communication Personal space
Invisible border around each person that other people must not invade during ordinary social interactions.
Females approach closer to others than males do.
People are especially likely to approach closely to females rather than males.
14. Body posture
Women look more tense; men appear more relaxed.
Men and women walk differently.
2 women touch more than 2 men.
Mixed dyads showed: Hall & Veccia (1990) no overall differences but in older couples, women touched men more and in younger couples, men touched women more.
Hall (1996) found no overall gender differences among professionals (psychology/philosophy); however if of equal status, male touch more.
Females gaze more at their conversational partners.
People gaze more at females than males.
17. Facial expressions
Women smile more than men.
The smiles of women are due to social tension
18. Decoding ability
The ability to figure out from another person’s nonverbal behavior, what that person is feeling.
Women are more likely than men to decode nonverbal expressions from facial expression.
This is evident as early as elementary school.
This is true cross-culturally.
19. Decoding from vocal cues:
Women more accurate at decoding voices that expressed fear, happiness, and sadness.
There was no gender difference for anger.
20. Potential explanations for gender differences in communication
Power and social status: Gender differences in the area of communication is due to power and status.
Social learning: Gender differences are due to roles, expectations, and socialization experiences. Children are then reinforced for using the appropriate gender response.
21. Characteristics related to helping and caring. Altruism
Providing unselfish help to others who are in need without anticipating any reward.
Some studies show men morel likely than women to offer unsolicited help.
When someone asked for help there were no gender differences.
Gender differences depend on the nature of the task and the nature of the request.
the kind of helping in which someone gives care to another person.
Women describe themselves as more nurturing but are equally responsive to the needs of others (especially babies)
The social situation (whether alone or in public) influences displays of nurture. In public, people act according to the socially constructed ideal: women get excited, men yawn.
Empathy is feeling the same emotion as another person.
Gender differences when based on self-report; women more empathic than men.
24. Moral judgments
Gilligan’s theory: 2 approaches to moral decision making.
Clopton and Sorell (1993) found no gender differences
Gender similarities when assessing what friends do when they get together. Both are likely to just talk
Self-disclosure: revealing information about yourself to someone else.
Women value self-disclosure somewhat more than men.
Cross-racial friendships are rare.
26. Aggression and power
Aggression is a male characteristic.
Lepowsky (1998) reports on aggression in an egalitarian culture. In a culture that discourages aggression, gender differences may disappear.
Harris (1994) on gangs, reports on a subculture that admires aggression, do not show gender differences.
27. Research on aggression shows:
Gender differences are relatively large in children.
Gender differences are large for physical aggression.
Women are capable of violence and it has been rising over the years.
28. Gender differences are large when based on self-report.
Gender differences are small when aggression is provoked.
Gender differences are small when the perpetrator or victim of aggression is anonymous.
29. Disadvantages of the myth of the non-aggressive female:
Women see themselves as weak.
Women may be denied access to professions that value competition.
Aggressive men may be seen as normal
A double-standard for punishment in the criminal system.
The ability to stand up for one’s rights.
No gender differences.
Males emerge as leaders
Characteristics of female leaders:
High in achievement style
No discomfort in using power
31. Performance as leaders
In laboratory research, men are more concerned about getting the job done; women are more concerned about the feelings of others. When analyze people employed as leaders, gender similarities.
Democratic: allow others to have input
Autocratic: decision made by leader
Gender differences were small but women more democratic and men more autocratic.
32. Males and females are equally effective.
Men most persuaded by women when women used tentative language and not persuaded by women who used assertive language.
Women were persuaded by another woman using assertive language.
A male audience was significantly more influenced by a man who used a competent style(rapid speech, upright posture, calm hand gestures)
33. rather than a women who used a competent style.
A competent women finds herself in a bind.
No gender differences.