Fys 4250
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FYS 4250. Biomedical instrumentation. Chapt 1: Basic concepts of medical instrumentation. Medical instrumentation, intensive care unit. Operating room. Approaches. Physicians Physicists, engineers Researcher Patients Functions: diagnostic, therapeutic, support Invasive / non-invasive

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FYS 4250

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Fys 4250

FYS 4250

Biomedical instrumentation

Chapt 1: Basic concepts of medical instrumentation

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Medical instrumentation intensive care unit

Medical instrumentation, intensive care unit

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Operating room

Operating room

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Approaches

Approaches

  • Physicians

  • Physicists, engineers

  • Researcher

  • Patients

  • Functions: diagnostic, therapeutic, support

  • Invasive / non-invasive

  • Technology: electromagnetic, optical, mecanical

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Fys 4250

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Unit of measurement si system

Unit of measurement, SI system

U = 5 volt

U is the quantity

5 is the dimension figure

[volt] is the unit

Examples of non SI-units: bar, psi, inch, yard, degrees Fahrenheit, miles, gallon

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Interfering modifying desired

Interfering modifying desired

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Example modifying interfering input

Example: modifying, interfering input

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Regulation systems of the body

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Servo loop

Servo loop

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Servo negative feedback

Servo (negative feedback)

Eq.1.3

y = output xd = desired inputGd = gain Hf = part of y back to input

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Biostatistics

Biostatistics

  • Sensitivity high → high true positive

  • Specificity high → high true negative

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Fys 4250

  • Linear system fits the equation y = mx + b.

  • Nonlinear system does not fit the straight line.

(a)

(b)

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  • The one-point calibration may miss nonlinearity.

  • The two-point calibration may also miss nonlinearity.

(a)

(b)

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A hysteresis loop

The output curve obtained when increasing the measurand is different from the output obtained when decreasing the measurand.

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Fys 4250

Precision, (a) low, (b) high

(a)

(b)

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Fys 4250

Accuracy: (a) low, (b) high

(a)

(b)

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Sensitivity

Drifting

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Linearity

Linearity

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Dynamic systems

Dynamic systems

The medical variable to be measured will normally vary as a function of time

The statical and dynamical properties of a measurement instrument can be described with a differeintial equation, usually limited to a 2. order like:

a2d2y/dt2 +a1dy/dt+ a0y(t) = b2d2x/dt2 +b1dx/dt + b0x(t)

input x(t), output y(t)

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0 order system static no energy storing

0. order system, static, no energy storing

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1 order system one energy storing element relaxation

1.order system, one energy storing element, relaxation

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2 order system two energy storing elements swinging system

2.order system,two energy storing elements, swinging system

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2 order system blood pressure monitoring

2.order system, blood pressure monitoring

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Fys 4250

Teknology:

How to

Design, construct

Produce, market

Medical equipment

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