Factors affecting population change
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FACTORS AFFECTING POPULATION CHANGE. There are four factors that affect population change in a country:. BIRTH RATE (people who are born) DEATH RATE (people who die) IMMIGRATION (people that move into the country) EMIGRATION (people who move out of the country)

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Factors affecting population change


There are four factors that affect population change in a country

There are four factors that affect population change in a country:

  • BIRTH RATE (people who are born)

  • DEATH RATE(people who die)

  • IMMIGRATION(people that move into the country)

  • EMIGRATION(people who move out of the country)

    These factors are known as ‘vital statistics’ for demographers.

Birth rate

Birth Rate

  • The number of live births per 1000 in a year.

Source: http://esa.un.org/wpp/index.htm

Birth rates 2008

Birth Rates - 2008


Factors influencing birth rates

Factors influencing birth rates

  • The number of women in the total population,

  • Range of ages of female population (15-49),

  • Education levels

    • Societies where women are not treated equally – receive less education = less influence

    • More education = more time in school, job outside of home = fewer children

  • government policies,

    • Population control programs

  • the availability of contraception,

  • Economic status

    • Low income families – have more children to bring more income into the family

    • No money for birth control

  • Medical conditions and general level of health care in country

    • More infant and early childhood deaths

    • Have many children in hopes that some will survive to reach maturity

  • culture & religion

    • Promotion of larger or smaller families

British birth rates on the rise

British Birth Rates on the rise

  • http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/british-birth-rate-leaps-by-18-in-a-decade-9107483.html

New baby boom

New baby boom?

  • http://www.foxnews.com/health/2014/01/29/new-baby-boom-how-global-birthrates-could-bounce-back/

Death rate


  • The number of deaths per 1000 in a year.

Source: http://esa.un.org/wpp/index.htm

Death rates 2009

Death Rates - 2009


Factors influencing death rates

Factors influencing death rates

  • Availability of medical services

    • Cost of services

  • Improved sanitation or vaccination programs

  • Education

    • Help maintain their children’s health as well as their own

    • Women in particular (usually the principal caregivers)

  • Availability of food and clean water

  • Level of Economic development

  • War and environmental disasters

  • The country’s fertility rate

    • Large population may increase the general death rates.

    • Child bearing in less developed countries can be dangerous

      • More children a woman has, the greater chance she has of dying

Case studies groups of 3 4

Case Studies (Groups of 3-4)

  • 1. A Woman’s Life in Mali (Page 170)

    • What conditions affect the number of children Sow has?

  • 2. Russia’s increasing death rate (Page 172)

    • What changes within Russian society caused the dramatic changes in life expectancy in that country?



  •     The number of people moving into a country.

  • Pull factors-characteristics of a place that attracts people to it.



  • The number of people leaving a country

  • Push Factors-characteristics of a place that causes people to leave.

  • Refugees- people who are forced to leave their country due to war, life-threatening discrimination, famine, or natural disasters.

Replacement level

Replacement Level

  • Replacement Level – The number of children required to keep the population of a country constant, not taking migration into consideration.  This is about 2.1 children per female in MDCs and 2.5 children per female in LDCs.

Total fertility rate

Total Fertility Rate

  • Total Fertility Rate – The average number of children a woman has in her lifetime in a country.

  • Factors:

    • Religion

    • Culture

    • Social values and economic status

      …Tends to be higher in less developed countries. 

Rate of natural increase

Rate of Natural Increase

  • Rate of Natural Increase (RNI) – birth rate minus death rate, calculated as a percentage; this does not take migration into consideration

  • RNI (%) =    BR  -  DR

  •                            10

  • (in order to get a % you must divide by 10 because BR and DR are measured per 1000)

Doubling population rule

Doubling Population Rule

  • Doubling Time – The time in years needed for a population to double its size assuming the growth rate remains the same.

  • DT (years) =    70__

  •                         RNI

Infant mortality rate 1year

Infant Mortality Rate (<1year)

  • based upon the number of live births that do not reach their first birthday (per 1000 births)

  • Underlying cause of about half of infant deaths

    • Malnutrition

Child mortality rate 1 5 years

Child Mortality Rate (1-5 years)

  • based upon the number of children that die between their 1st and 5th birthdays (per 1000 births)

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