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Positive Behavioral Support and Delinquency Prevention. Terrance M. Scott, University of Florida Carl J. Liaupsin, University of Arizona Christine Christle, University of Kentucky Kristine Jolivette, University of Kentucky C. Michael Nelson, University of Kentucky . Agenda.

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positive behavioral support and delinquency prevention
Positive Behavioral Support and Delinquency Prevention

Terrance M. Scott, University of Florida

Carl J. Liaupsin, University of Arizona

Christine Christle, University of Kentucky Kristine Jolivette, University of Kentucky

C. Michael Nelson, University of Kentucky

agenda
Agenda
  • The Students and the Problem
  • A Model for Delinquency Prevention: Positive Behavior Support
  • Examples
labels for youth who manifest patterns of antisocial behavior
Labels for youth who manifest patterns of antisocial behavior
  • Socially maladjusted (exclusion/illogical)
  • Juvenile delinquent (legal term/adjudicated)
  • Juvenile offender (age of majority/committed a legal or status offense)

These labels are not educationally relevant

  • Do not relate to the characteristics or needs of the individuals
risk factors
Risk Factors
  • Lax or inconsistent parental discipline
  • Coercive family interactions
  • Physical abuse
  • Substance abuse (self or family)
  • Living in a high crime community
  • Criminal or delinquent relatives or peers
  • Ethnic minority status
  • Aggressive, antisocial behavior
  • Difficulties in school
  • School failure (including educational disabilities)
  • Poverty
  • Broken home
  • Inadequate parental supervision
where do you find juvenile offenders
Where do you findjuvenile offenders?
  • General and special education classrooms
  • Alternative schools
  • Day treatment programs
  • Detention or correctional facilities

Most

Few

how do schools respond to student behavior problems
How do Schools Respond to Student Behavior Problems?
  • A suburban high school with 1400 pupils reported over 2000 office referrals from Sept. to Feb. of one school year
  • In 1998-99, 74,565 suspensions and 3,603 expulsions were reported in Kentucky schools

ZERO TOLERANCE FOR UNDESIRED BEHAVIOR!

slide7

Student Interactions

with the School

Students who exhibit challenging behaviors have:

  • higher rates of negative interactions with school personnel regardless of their behavior
  • higher rates of punitive consequences than their peers

this tends to make behaviors worse

  • lower rates academic engaged time with teacherperpetuates cycle of problem behavior

(Wehby et al. 1996; Shores et al. 1996)

slide8

Ineffective Interventions

800

Reviews of over studies involving children with the most challenging behaviors(Gottfredson, 1997; Lipsky, 1996) indicate

the smallest intervention effect-sizes for:

  • Counselingsending problem students to talk to the counselor
  • Psychotherapysending problem students to talk with psychotherapists
  • Punishmentreacting to behavior without facilitating success
long term predictable failure
Long-Term Predictable Failure
  • Students with a history of chronic and pervasive behavioral problems and associated academic deficits are more likely to go to jail than to graduate from high school
  • Three years after leaving school, 70% of antisocial youth have been arrested (Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1995)
  • 82% of all crimes are committed by people who have dropped out of school (APA Commission on Youth Violence, 1993)
initial failures lead to challenging behavior
Initial Failures Lead to Challenging Behavior

RISKFACTORS

OUTCOMES

fall behind academically >> difficult work >> challenging behaviors >> removal from class >>

Poverty

School Safety Issues

The Academic-

Behavior

Connection

Poor Modeling

School Exclusion

ReadingDeficits

Life-Long Failure

kentucky
Kentucky

Grade Level CTBS Predictors R-Square

Grade 3 1. Poverty level .400 2. Attendance rate .432 3. Number of expulsions .456

Grade 6 1. Poverty level .458 2. Attendance rate .546 3. Number of suspensions .555

Grade 9 1. Poverty level .521 2. Attendance rate .628 3. Dropout rate .646 4. Enrollment .655

illinois
Illinois
  • http://206.166.105.35/designation/indicators.htm
summary of the problem
Summary of the Problem

So Far

  • Labels & characteristics
  • Ineffective School Responses
  • Need to Predict Problems
    • Academic Behavior Connection
    • Poverty predicts failure

Next

  • A Model for Prevention: PBS
prevention of juvenile delinquency
Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency
  • Primary Prevention
    • Prevent initial offending
  • Secondary Prevention
    • Prevent re-offending
  • Tertiary Prevention
    • Ameliorate effects of persistent offending
positive behavior support
Positive Behavior + Support =
  • Positive behavior—goal is for students to develop a repertoire of appropriate skills that enable them to participate successfully in a broad range of family, school, and community settings.
  • Support—a continuum of strategies provided at the appropriate level of personalization, given the strengths, needs, and preferences of the student and family.
positive behavior support1
Positive Behavior Support
  • A broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior
  • An integration of (a) valued outcomes, (b) the science of human behavior, (c) validated procedures, and (d) systems change to enhance quality of life and reduce problem behavior
big pbs ideas
BIG PBS IDEAS
  • Use what works
  • Build capacity
  • Take responsibility for all students
  • Be proactive
  • Work smarter
slide18

ALL STUDENTS

•Effective instruction•Increased prompts/cues•Pre-correction

•Clear expectations•Teach expectations•Facilitate success

•School-wide data•Rules, routines, and physical arrangements

•Functional assessment•Effective Interventions•Individuals/small #s

•Planned and implemented by all adults in school

UNIVERSAL SYSTEMS

SCHOOL-WIDE PREVENTION

10%

•Key teachers and specialists implement

TARGETED INTERVENTIONS

TARGETED PREVENTIONS

1-3%

•Effective instruction•Crisis management plans

•Wraparound planning•Alternative placements

•Special Education

INTENSIVE PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION

INTENSIVE SERVICES

positive behavior support model levels of prevention
Positive Behavior Support ModelLevels of Prevention

Intensive

Individual Interventions

(1-3% of students)

Intensive

Individual Interventions

(1-3% of students)

Intensive

Individual Interventions

(1-3% of students)

Tertiary

Targeted

Classroom and

Small Group Strategies

(7-9% of students)

Targeted

Classroom and

Small Group Strategies

(7-9% of students)

Targeted

Classroom and

Small Group Strategies

(7-9% of students)

Secondary

Universal

School-Wide Systems of Support

(90% of students)

Universal

School-Wide Systems of Support

(90% of students)

Universal

School-Wide Systems of Support

(90% of students)

Primary

Adapted from George Sugai, 1996

Adapted from George Sugai, 1996

universal interventions primary prevention
Universal Interventions:Primary Prevention
  • Elements

Rules

      • agreed upon by team - willing/able to enforce
      • posted, brief, positively stated

Routines

      • avoid problem contexts, times, groupings, etc.

consistent

Arrangements

      • clear physical boundaries
      • supervision of all areas
targeted interventions secondary prevention
Targeted InterventionsSecondary Prevention

800

Reviews of over studies involving children with the most challenging behaviors(Gottfredson, 1997; Lipsky, 1996) indicate

  • Social skills trainingteach specific skills using effective instruction

the largest intervention effect-sizes for:

  • Behaviorally based interventioneffective use of reinforcement/punishment to facilitate success
  • Academic curricular restructuringintensive instruction in reading
intensive interventions tertiary prevention
Intensive InterventionsTertiary Prevention

Elements

  • planning for involvement of community resources as necessary
  • in-depth and continuous assessment from a variety of sources and perspectives
  • write activities into formal plans where necessary (IEP)
summary of the model
Summary of the Model

In This Section:

  • Prevention of juvenile offending
  • Positive Behavioral Support
  • Primary/Universal
  • Secondary/Targeted
  • Tertiary/Intensive

Now:

  • Examples
example teaching behavior
Hands and feet to self or

Respect others

2+2 = 4

Behavior: Peer Relations

Academic Skill: Addition

EXAMPLE Teaching Behavior
example teachable expectations
EXAMPLETeachable Expectations

1. Respect Yourself-in the classroom (do your best) -on the playground (follow safety rules)

2. Respect Others-in the classroom (raise your hand to speak) -in the stairway (single file line)

3. Respect Property-in the classroom (ask before borrowing) -in the lunchroom (pick up your mess)

example ky kids schools project
Example:KY KIDS Schools Project
  • 66% reduction in office referrals
  • 64% reduction in suspensions and expulsions
example harrison school wide objectives
EXAMPLEHarrison School-Wide Objectives
  • By the end of the year, number of referrals to SAFE will be reduced by at least 30% across all students
  • By the end of the year, number of suspensions will be reduced by at least 30% across all students and minority students
  • By the end of the year, reading scores will increase across each grade and across the school
time spent away from academics due to behavior

776.8 additional instructional hours

61%

Time Spent Away from Academics Due to Behavior

Convert Data from number of hours

To “Average Hours”

(standardizes data for comparisons)

academics baseline year 1
Academics: Baseline - Year 1

CTBS Scores

Reading

Language

Math

1997 1998 1999 % Baseline Baseline Intervention Change

21 19 27 42%

21 20 30 50%

26 20 30 50%

osep center for education disabilities and juvenile justice www edjj org
OSEP Center for Education, Disabilities, and Juvenile Justicewww.edjj.org
  • University of Maryland
  • University of Kentucky
  • Arizona State University
  • Eastern Kentucky University
  • PACER Center
  • American Institutes of Research
osep center for positive behavioral interventions and support http www pbis org
OSEP Center for Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supporthttp:www.pbis.org
  • University of Oregon
  • University of Kentucky
  • University of Missouri
  • University of Kansas
  • University of South Florida
slide33

www.state.ky.us/agencies/behave/homepage.html

Information and Links:

Job Opportunities

Discussion Forums

Behavioral Interventions

Links to Other Resources

Behavioral Consultation

Legal Information

More . . .

Sponsored by The University

of Kentucky and the

Kentucky Dept. of Education

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