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Where do we start? Create the Universe Form the Earth and elements PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Where do we start? Create the Universe Form the Earth and elements move the elements into their correct positions build the atmosphere and oceans. The Universe was created 15 billion years ago in one BIG BANG ...... How do we know? Start with the atom. The BIG BANG. ENERGY. Nucleus. }.

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Where do we start? Create the Universe Form the Earth and elements

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Where do we start create the universe form the earth and elements

Where do we start?

Create the Universe

Form the Earth and elements

move the elements into their correct positions

build the atmosphere and oceans


The big bang

The Universe was created 15 billion years ago in one BIG BANG ...... How do we know?

Start with the atom

The BIG BANG


Where do we start create the universe form the earth and elements

ENERGY

Nucleus


Where do we start create the universe form the earth and elements

}

ENERGY

E = hv

Nucleus


Where do we start create the universe form the earth and elements

Every element has a characteristic absorption spectra - (ICP)

Wavelength

700 nm

400 nm

Elemental Absorption


Where do we start create the universe form the earth and elements

Spectrum of the Sun

http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/illus/ilt/T014334A.gif


Where do we start create the universe form the earth and elements

From the magnitude of the shift we can calculate the speed of the star.

The more distant stars are moving the fastest.

From distance and velocity information -> TIME 15 billion years!

700 nm

Wavelength

400 nm


At the start

At the Start

BANG

Protons and electrons

Big Blob of

Neutrons (N)

12 Minutes


Where do we start create the universe form the earth and elements

Now we are COOKING ........... Fusion produces heat

E = mc2

1 gram of hydrogen will produce 6.3x1011 j of heat.

Enough heat to boil 2 million liters of H2O

Compare this to our terrestrial energy consumption.


Where do we start create the universe form the earth and elements

C


Where do we start create the universe form the earth and elements

This process stops at iron-56


Where do we start create the universe form the earth and elements

Supernovae

Second Generation Star

Elements H-1 through Fe-56

H through Fe and n

Explosion


Where do we start create the universe form the earth and elements

Supernovae

Second Generation Star

Elements H-1 through Fe-56

H through Fe and n

Explosion


Where do we start create the universe form the earth and elements

Beta Decay

8

e-

14N

7

Proton Number

14C

6

5

6

7

8

9

Neutron Number


Where do we start create the universe form the earth and elements

Electron Capture

20

e-

40K

19

Proton Number

40Ar

18

17

20

21

22

23

Neutron Number


Where do we start create the universe form the earth and elements

Alpha Decay

147

238U

146

Proton Number

145

4He

234Th

144

143

89

90

91

92

93

Neutron Number


Review of element formation

Big Bang

Nuclear “Cooking” - Fusion

Neutron Capture

What is the end result?

Review of Element Formation


What about the earth

What about the Earth?


Another look at the earth on a linear scale

Where did all the other elements go? H, He, C, N??

They got BLOWN AWAY

This leaves just Si, Mg, Fe, and O

Another look at the earth on a linear scale.


And just for fun

.....and just for fun


Formation of the earth

The earth started as a hot molten blob of metal and oxygen

As the blob cooled, density differences of the original components drove an elemental segregation.

Metallic iron - The Earth’s core

Mg, Fe, and Si oxides - The crust

How do we know?

We know from earthquake seismology

Formation of the Earth


A slice of the earth

A Slice of the Earth

Inner Core

Outer Core

Mantle


A slice of the earth1

earthquakes travel as shear waves or compressional waves

A Slice of the Earth

Inner Core

2900 km

Outer Core

Mantle


Where do we start create the universe form the earth and elements

shear waves only pass through SOLIDS (mantle)

So we have a “liquid” iron core. This has important implications for other elements

Ni, S, Au, Pt, Ag, Pb dissolve in the liquid iron

What is left is Mg, Si oxide mantle.

The mantle is not really solid, but really a “putty” that is kept warm by the radioactive decay of 40K, 235U, 238U, and 232Th.

The heating of the mantle drives convection cells.


Where do we start create the universe form the earth and elements

The mantle melt cycle (subduction/formation) enriches the crust further in Si, Na, K, Ca, and Al

Crust

  • Lower Mantle

  • Outer Core

  • Inner Core


What about the oceans and the atmosphere

The Earth is about 0.5% water. Where did it come from?

The source of water in the early Earth is poorly understood ...we are lucky that it arrived.

The gravitational attraction of the Earth retained almost all of the water.

Surface water puts important constraints on global temperature! 0 <--> 100 oC.

What about the Oceans and the Atmosphere?


Controls on co 2

CO2 is controlled by a global scale feedback loop with a time scale of >10,000 years

Consider the following reactions:

Controls on CO2


Controls on co 21

CO2 is controlled by a global scale feedback loop with a time scale of >10,000 years

Consider the following reactions:

Controls on CO2

Generic Weathering Reaction

Generic Precipitation Reactions

Generic Mantle Reactions


Where do we start create the universe form the earth and elements

Atmosphere

Oceanic

Crust

Continental

Crust


Lets work with units

Lets work with units

CO2 (g) 0.0365 %, This is a mixing ratio

O220.95%

N2 78.08%

Ar0.93%

PV= nRT, average mass gas 28.96 g/mol

%, 00/0, ppm, ppb


Pressure

Pressure

Atmospheric Pressure is a force per unit area: N/m2

P0 = (Weight of atmosphere (N))/4(p)r2

r = 6.37x106 m P0 = 101325 Pa

Ph = Po e -Mgh/RT

M = 0.029 kg/mol

R = 8.314 J/mol K

g = 9.81 m/s2

Scale height 5-6 km


Where do we start create the universe form the earth and elements

Unit Conversion


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