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Welcome to Preventing Clinician Burnout: personal and Professional issues and Plans Presented by: Mark Linzer, MD, FACP. The presentation will begin shortly This webinar will be recorded and used for future presentations .

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The presentation will begin shortly

Welcome to Preventing Clinician Burnout:personal and Professional issues and PlansPresented by: Mark Linzer, MD, FACP

The presentation will begin shortly

This webinar will be recorded and used for future presentations.

Funds for this webinar were provided by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding for the Retention and Evaluation Activities (REA) Initiative.

This webinar is being offered by the California Statewide AHEC program in partnership with the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD), designated as the California Primary Care Office (PCO).

Center for Patient and Provider Experience at


Preventing clinician burnout personal and professional issues and plans

Preventing Clinician Burnout: Personal and Professional Issues and Plans

Mark Linzer MD

General Internal Medicine

Center for Patient and Provider Experience

Hennepin County Medical Center

Center for Patient and Provider Experience at


No conflicts of interest

No conflicts of interest

  • Research supported by Federal Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)

Center for Patient and Provider Experience at


Objectives

Objectives

  • Identify features of a healthy work environment and how to create one.

  • Discuss ideas of self-care to protect against burnout.

  • Process collaborative approaches to develop and maintain a healthy workplace.

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Burnout is in the news

Burnout is in the news…

New York Times, 6-17-08

“It will take real structural change in the work environment for physician satisfaction to improve. Fortunately, the data show physicians are willing to put up with a lot before giving up.”

Mark Linzer, Madison, WI

Center for Patient and Provider Experience at


Research base

Research Base

  • Physician Worklife Study Funded by Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

  • 1996-98: national survey of >5000 MDs

  • Findings:

    • Satisfaction promoted by long term relationships with patients

    • Time pressure diminished satisfaction

    • Stress related to lack of work control

    • Burnout predicted by work-home interference

      Linzer. J Gen Intern Med. 2000;15(7):441-50.


Burnout model

Mediating variables

Variable

outcomes

Background variables

Sex

Age

Children

Solo practice

Academic practice

Work hours

Work control

Work-home interference

Home support

Stress

Satisfaction

Burnout model

Burnout

From Linzer M. Am J Med 2001; 111:170-75.

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Memo study aligning physician and patient outcomes

MEMO study: aligning physician and patient outcomes

  • Funded by AHRQ; 2002-2006

  • 119 PC clinics; 422 MDs; 1785 patients.

  • To determine relationships between work conditions, physician reactions (stress and burnout) and patient care (quality and errors).

    Linzer M, et al. Ann Intern Med 2009;151:28-36.

Center for Patient and Provider Experience at


Memo study conceptual model

MEMO Study conceptual model

Physician

Reactions

Patient

Outcomes

Workplace

Characteristics

Structure

Culture

Workflow

Policies, processes

Patient demands

Satisfaction

Trust

Quality of care

Medical errors

Satisfaction

Stress

Burnout

Intent to leave

Center for Patient and Provider Experience at


Measuring quality

Measuring Quality

Assess:

  • Patient satisfaction

  • Quality of life

  • Disease management

Patient Survey

Chart review

Up to 6 patients per primary care physician with diabetes and/or HTN

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Determining errors

Determining Errors

  • Confidential chart reviews for errors in processes of care (e.g., wrong medications, missed preventive activities)

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Memo results physician outcomes

MEMO results: physician outcomes

  • 50% need more time for visits

  • 27% burning out or burned out

  • 30% moderately likely to leave job in 2 years

  • Strong relationships between work conditions (time pressure, work control, chaos, organizational culture) and physician satisfaction, stress, burnout, intent to leave

  • Many patient care outcomes linked to work conditions

Center for Patient and Provider Experience at


Memo results patient care

MEMO Results: patient care

Linzer et al. Ann Intern Med 2009

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Memo results patient care1

MEMO Results: patient care

Linzer et al. Ann Intern Med 2009

Center for Patient and Provider Experience at


The presentation will begin shortly

  • Mock OWL (problematic setting), taken from Linzer et al. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151:28-36.


Current ahrq grant creating healthy workplaces

Current AHRQ grant: Creating Healthy Workplaces

  • Randomized trial of QI interventions to improve work conditions and care quality

  • 34 clinics in Rural WI; Chicago; NYC

  • Use OWL to measure work environment and patient outcomes at baseline and after 6-12 months in intervention and control sites

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The power of the data

The power of the data

  • Clinics shown their OWL data and comparison clinics data

  • Data spurred meaningful conversations and movement towards solutions

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Job satisfaction business case

Job satisfaction: business case

  • Harvard Business School: stocks rose 147% when employee satisfaction rose

  • In 7900 businesses: productivity and income tied to employee satisfaction

  • Sears: when employee satisfaction rose 4%, sales increased by $200 million, with a rise in customer satisfaction

(Brown & Gunderman. Acad Med 2006;81:577-82)

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Outcomes of dissatisfaction

Outcomes of dissatisfaction

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Burnout long term stress reaction

Burnout: long-term stress reaction

  • Prevalent (20-40%) in practicing physicians (Linzer. Am J Med. 2001;111:170-75), higher in medical students (Dyrbe L. Ann Intern Med 2008;149:334-41).

  • Associated with perceived errors by medical housestaff (West C. JAMA. 2009;296:1071-78)

  • 1.6 x higher in women physicians than men

  • Mediated by home support, work control, and work-home balance(Linzer et al. Am J Med 2001;111:170-5)

  • Present in 46% of US MDs (Shanafelt T. Arch Intern Med 2012)

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Demand control model of job stress

Demands

Control

Support

Demand-control model of job stress

  • Demands balanced by control

  • Stress increases if demands rise or control diminishes

  • Support can facilitate impact of control: more support, less stress

  • Bottom line… support and work control prevent stress

(Karasek et al. Am J Public Health 1981;71:694-705)

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Gender differences in burnout

Gender differences in burnout

  • US vs Netherlands: Less gender difference in burnout in Netherlands due to a) fewer work hours and b) better work control in women vs men MDs

    (Linzer et al. J Am Med Women’s Assoc 2002;57:191-3)

  • More burnout in US women MDs due to gendered expectations for listening

  • US women MDs describe faster pace, less values alignment with leadership (Horner-Ibler et al. J Gen Intern Med 2005; 20(s1):194)

Center for Patient and Provider Experience at


Burnout in surgeons

Burnout in Surgeons

  • Common - 32-40%

  • Predictors:

    - lack of control

    - lack of work-family balance

    - dual career family

    - nights, work hours

    - comp based on billing

    (Shanafelt T. Ann Surg. 2009;250:463-71. Balch C. Arch Surg. 2009; 144:371-76)


Stress and emr

Stress and EMR

  • MEMO study looked at relationship between EMR functionality and stress.

  • Two findings:

    • Stress increased (3 to 3.5 on 1-5 scale) as EMR functions increased; stress decreased as EMR fully functional (3.2) – but not to original level.

    • In fully functional EMRs, shorter visits associated with more stress, burnout and intent to leave.

      (Babbott. JGIM, abstract, 2011)


One more burnout predictor

One more burnout predictor

Career fit:

  • If % time clinicians are able to do what they are most passionate about falls below 10%, burnout rises dramatically (>50%).

  • Thus, be sure clinicians have time (at least 10%) to devote to what they care most about (“career fit”)

    (Shanafelt T. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(10):990-995.)


How can we prevent burnout

How can we prevent burnout?

  • Flexible/part-time work (Linzer. Acad Med 2009;84:1395-1400)

  • Leaders model work-home balance; value well-being (Saleh. ClinOrthopRelat Res 2009;467:558-65; Dunn. J Gen Intern Med 2007;22:1544-52)

  • Promote work control; limit EMR time outside office; provide sufficient time to use it inside

  • Alter our “culture of endurance” (Viviers. Can J Ophthalmol 2008;43:535-46)

Center for Patient and Provider Experience at


A healthy work environment

A healthy work environment

  • Less time pressure, more control

    • Extend appt times, or offload non-clinician work

    • “Desk top” slots during sessions

    • Time to catch up (2 hrs?) after vacation/leave

  • More order, less chaos

    • Maximally utilize space

    • Pilot unique schedules: “7 on, 7 off”

  • Support for work-home balance

    • Support part-time practice and practice styles supportive of parents of young children

Center for Patient and Provider Experience at


Creating healthy work environments

Creating healthy work environments

  • Kenny C. Transforming Health Care: Virginia Mason Medical Center's Pursuit of the Perfect Patient Experience,  CRC Press; 1 edition (November 8, 2010).

  • Linzer M, Respecting the lifecycle: rational workforce planning in a section of general internal medicine. Am J Med.2002;113: 443-48.


Wellness in work life

Wellness in work life

  • Time to:

    • Reflect together on challenging cases

    • Exercise 3-4 x per wk

    • Eat all meals

    • Complete work at work

    • See a patient, listen, provide empathy, attend to quality measures, and use the EMR

    • Huddle with your team (who can help with all of the above)

    • Meet with leaders and discuss values, direction and purpose

Center for Patient and Provider Experience at


Remember part time physicians are key

Remember part-time physicians are key:

  • Hard workers; usually at more than their FTE

  • Loyal, connected, good morale

  • Patient satisfaction is high

  • They may become full-time one day when you wish to go part-time (e.g. for children, end of career)!

    Mechaber H et al. J Gen Intern Med. 2008;23(3):300-3.

Center for Patient and Provider Experience at


One way to get there create an office of professional worklife and wellness

One way to get there – Create an Office of Professional Worklife and Wellness

  • Visible site for clinician wellness

  • Wellness Champions in each setting

  • Periodic, brief surveys of stress, burnout and remediable predictors

  • Focused action plans to promote wellness

Center for Patient and Provider Experience at


Mini owl

Mini-OWL

1. Overall, I am satisfied with my current job:

Strongly disagree DisagreeNeither agree nor disagreeAgreeAgree strongly 

2. I feel a great deal of stress because of my job

Strongly disagreeDisagreeNeither agree nor disagreeAgreeAgree strongly 

3. Using your own definition of “burnout”, please circle one of the answers below:

1. I enjoy my work. I have no symptoms of burnout.2. I am under stress, and don’t always have as much energy as I did, but I don’t feel burned out.3. I am definitely burning out and have one or more symptoms of burnout, ex. emotional exhaustion. 4. The symptoms of burnout that I’m experiencing won’t go away. I think about frustrations at work a lot. 5. I feel completely burned out and often wonder if I can go on. I am at the point where I may need to seek help.  

4. My control over my workload is:

1 – Poor2 – Marginal3 – Satisfactory4 – Good5 – Optimal 

5. Sufficiency of time for documentation is:

1 – Poor2 – Marginal3 – Satisfactory4 – Good5 – Optimal 

6. Which number best describes the atmosphere in your primary work area?

Calm Busy, but reasonable Hectic, chaotic 12345

7. My professional values are well aligned with those of my department leaders:

Strongly disagreeDisagreeNeither agree nor disagreeAgreeAgree strongly 

8. My professional values are well aligned with those of our organizational leaders:

Strongly disagreeDisagreeNeither agree nor disagreeAgreeAgree strongly 

*This survey was developed by Dr. Mark Linzer (Division Director, General Internal Medicine) and his team at Hennepin County Medical Center in Minneapolis MN as part of his ongoing research in Clinician Worklife and Satisfaction. Disclaimer-this is adapted from the OWL (Office and Work Life™ measure); more detailed surveys are often needed for second stage work.

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Thank you

Thank you

Been a privilege to share our research with you. Thank you for listening and participating!

[email protected]

Center for Patient and Provider Experience at


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