Kinetics
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Kinetics. Answers question, “How fast?” Rate is proportional to the concentration of reactants raised to a power. Rate law is experimentally determined. =>. =>. Activation Energy. Minimum energy required to reach the transition state .

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Kinetics

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Kinetics

Kinetics

  • Answers question, “How fast?”

  • Rate is proportional to the concentration of reactants raised to a power.

  • Rate law is experimentally determined.=>


Activation energy

=>

Activation Energy

  • Minimum energy required to reach the transition state.

  • At higher temperatures, more molecules have the required energy.


Reaction energy diagrams

=>

Reaction-Energy Diagrams

  • For a one-step reaction:reactants  transition state  products

  • A catalyst lowers the energy of the transition state.


Rate limiting step

Rate-Limiting Step

  • Reaction intermediates are stable as long as they don’t collide with another molecule or atom, but they are very reactive.

  • Transition states are at energy maximums.

  • Intermediates are at energy minimums.

  • The reaction step with highest Ea will be the slowest, therefore rate-determining for the entire reaction. =>


Energy diagram for a two step reaction

=>

Energy Diagram for a Two-Step Reaction

  • Reactants  transition state  intermediate

  • Intermediate  transition state  product


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