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HOW TO INTERPRET YOUR LAB TESTS. Janice Price, M.Ed, RN Swedish Medical Center HIV Research Program. TESTS. CBC: Complete Blood Count Serum Chemistries Liver Function/ Amylase Lipids: Blood Fats Immune System: CD4 & Viral Load. CBC: Complete Blood Count. Red Blood Cells: RBC

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How to interpret your lab tests l.jpg

HOW TO INTERPRET YOUR LAB TESTS

Janice Price, M.Ed, RN

Swedish Medical Center HIV Research Program


Tests l.jpg
TESTS

  • CBC: Complete Blood Count

  • Serum Chemistries

  • Liver Function/ Amylase

  • Lipids: Blood Fats

  • Immune System: CD4 & Viral Load


Cbc complete blood count l.jpg
CBC: Complete Blood Count

  • Red Blood Cells: RBC

  • White Blood Cells:WBC

  • Platelets: Plts

  • Serum/Plasma



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Bone Marrow

  • All Blood Cells made in bone marrow.

  • Bone Marrow is the spongy centers of bones sometimes seen in cuts of meat


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Stem Cells

  • Stem cells are young cells

  • All blood cells start as stem cells

  • They get “drafted” as RBCs, WBCs or platelets depending on the body’s needs


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Red Blood Cells

  • Called erythrocytes

  • “cytes” = cells

  • Shaped like bagel with hole covered over

  • Filled with hemoglobin that carries oxygen from the lungs to every cell in the body.

Utah State University


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White Blood Cells

  • WBCs are disease fighters

  • Some make antibodies and some fight invaders directly

  • Divided into categories depending on function and what they look like.


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Types of White Cells

  • Lymphocytes: B and T cells. Agranulocytes

  • Granulocytes: polymorphonucleocoytes mostly neutrophils (55-80%), also basophils and eosonophils

  • Monocytes: mature into macrophages (big eaters)


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A macrophage attacking a bacteria with

a cellular extension called a pseudopod


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Abbreviations

  • RBC = Red Blood Cell

  • WBC = White Blood Cell

  • HCT = Hematocrit

  • Hbg = Hemoglobin

  • ANC = Absolute Neutrophil Count



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TESTS OF IMMUNE FUNCTION

A human cell infected with a rhinovirus ruptures,

relasing millions of new viruses


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A human T-helper cell is under

attack by HIV virus


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Viral Load Tests

  • PCR: Most common. Usually expressed has HIV-1 PCR in copies per milliliter. Roche Amplicor

  • bDNA: values are different. Usually ½ of PCR value

  • NASBA: nucleic acid sequence based amplification. Values are also different


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UNDETECTABLE VIRAL LOAD DOES NOT MEAN NO VIRUS PRESENT

Remember: there are other places for virus to hide


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Viral Load Expressed as Log

10 x = viral load




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