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Modules 38 & 39. Health and Stress. Health Psychology – studies how biological, psychological and social factors influence health, illness and treatment. Biopsychosocial Model. Health Psychology Understand the relationship between Mind and Body

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Modules 38 39

Modules 38 & 39

Health and Stress


Health Psychology – studies how biological, psychological and social factors influence health, illness and treatment.

Biopsychosocial Model


  • Health Psychology and social factors influence health, illness and treatment.

  • Understand the relationship between

  • Mind and Body

  • - Educate people about health risks.

  • Design programs to reduce

  • health risks and promote

  • healthy behaviors.


Epidemiological Studies and social factors influence health, illness and treatment.

- large number of people

- Patterns (correlations) between lifestyle and health outcomes

- look for risk factors of disease.


Top 5 causes of Death are related to Lifestyle and social factors influence health, illness and treatment.

choices


Stressors: Events or situations that are perceived as harmful, threatening, or challenging and thus trigger stress response.

Stress –play role in 50% to 70 % of all physical

illness.

Stress is a Reaction to a Stressor.


Is all stress bad no neurological physical response to threats motivation
Is all stress bad harmful, threatening, or challenging and thus trigger stress response.? No.Neurological/physical response to threats.Motivation


Catastrophes: harmful, threatening, or challenging and thus trigger stress response.

followed by increased rates of psychological disorders such as depression and anxiety that can be long-lasting.


Not all stressors are negative experiences

significant life events/changes harmful, threatening, or challenging and thus trigger stress response.

Not all Stressors are negative experiences


Measuring Stress harmful, threatening, or challenging and thus trigger stress response.

Social Readjustment Scale

- any change, whether negative or

positive is inherently stress producing.

  • not a good predictor of poor physical

    or mental health.

  • does not take into account

    • subjective appraisal of the event

    • ability to cope

    • Assumes event is the same for everyone



Daily Hassles Scale Stress

  • better predictor of physical symptoms and psychological distress.

Social/cultural Stressors: poverty, low social status, discrimination


Conflict as a source of Stress Stress

Approach-Approach conflict – win/win

easily resolved and not too stressful

Avoidance-Avoidance

  • people often to delay, thus avoiding either.

    Approach-Avoidance

    Vacillation

    People feel stuck and experience

    Stress and anxiety.


Physiological Stress Response Stress

Triggered whenever your mind determines that

you are under threat. Response is the same

regardless of the type of stress!


Fight-or-flight response (Cannon)—rapidly occurring chain of internal physical reactions that prepare people to either fight or take flight from an immediate threat

- activates Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS)

 Heart rate, BP, release of epinephrine,

adrenaline, and endorphins.

 Digestion

Increases general arousal level

and reduces concentration.


Immune system: of internal physical reactions that prepare people to either fight or take flight from an immediate

Stress

Hypothalamus

Muscle:

Net loss of amino

Acids (glucose)

CRH

Posterior

Pituitary Gland

Anterior

Pituitary Gland

(-)

Liver:

ACTH

Adrenals

Glucocorticoids,

Catecholamines, etc..

Fat Cells:

Kidney

Heart rate:

Increased

Glucocortical Stress Hormones


Stress and the adrenal glands
Stress and The Adrenal Glands of internal physical reactions that prepare people to either fight or take flight from an immediate


Catecholamine of internal physical reactions that prepare people to either fight or take flight from an immediate

epinephrine and norepinephrine

Short term elevation (20 to 60 mins)

Triggers fight or flight response

Glucocorticoids

Reduced inflammation and enhance tone of circulatory system.

In long run they weaken important systems, lower immunity and lead to illness.

Prolonged stress also linked to depression & other psychological symptoms.


General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) of internal physical reactions that prepare people to either fight or take flight from an immediate

Stage 1. Alarm

- SNS response.

- good for short term stressors, but when

prolonged . . .

Stage 2. Resistance

- prolonged period of moderate arousal

- continued high levels of hormones that elevate

blood sugars -- increase metabolism

- increase immune response


Stage 3. Exhaustion of internal physical reactions that prepare people to either fight or take flight from an immediate

- prolonged metabolic increase decreases

immune response.

Immune

Response

Alarm Resistance Exhaustion


Student Syndrome – students more likely to get sick after exam period.

Burnout - psychological, physical and behavioral

dysfunction in response to continuous, chronic

stress.


Telomeres exam period.

Shortening of Telomeres

normally occurs with age.

Stress appears to increase the rate of shortening!

Stress does age people.

Presidents actually tend to

live pretty long: WHY?

Access to superior medical

care, good education, and it

takes an inherently healthy

person to endure the rigors of a presidential campaign and administration.


Stress and Illness exam period.

Psychosomatic illness

Psychophysiological Illness

Psychoneuroimmunology (Mind/Body)

SNS is a direct link between CNS and the physical systems of the body.


Stress and the Immune System exam period.

Lymphocytes – white blood cells that fight

viruses and bacteria

Lymphocytes have receptors for neurotransmitters and hormones AND they also produce these chemical messengers.


Problems develop when the immune system is either underactive or overactive.

Underactive - does not protect against disease.

Overactive – Immune system may attack one’s own body tissue.

  • Arthritis

  • Allergies

  • Autoimmune disorders


Woman have stronger immune systems than men. Also more susceptible to autoimmune disorders!


Personality, Stress and Illness susceptible to autoimmune disorders!

Type A - competitive, workaholic, impatient, quick to anger.

Type B - less competitive, easy-going, less hostile

Cynical Hostilityis the most predictive Type A behavior for Heart Disease.


Type A individuals are more susceptible to negative effects of stress, including vulnerability to heart disease, with anger and hostility being primary factors.

  • Low Hostility

  • High Hostility


How Do You Deal with Stress of stress, including vulnerability to heart disease, with anger and hostility being primary factors.?


Components of Stress Reactions of stress, including vulnerability to heart disease, with anger and hostility being primary factors.

StressorsPersonality

Cognitive

Appraisal

Physical

Response


Stress Coping Techniques of stress, including vulnerability to heart disease, with anger and hostility being primary factors.

1) Assess Stressors

- reduce those you do not need.

2) Cognitive Appraisal

- Sense of Control

- Predictability - plan to cope

- time management


3) Work on your reaction to Stress of stress, including vulnerability to heart disease, with anger and hostility being primary factors.

Optimism!! Positive outlook

Explanatory Style

  • Explain failures as external (situational),

    unstable (temporary) and specific.

    Hardy Personality

    - commitment to activities

    - see their activities as worthwhile

    - see potential stressors as a challenge

    - sense of control


4) Social Support of stress, including vulnerability to heart disease, with anger and hostility being primary factors.

5) Journal Writing


Blunting Strategies of stress, including vulnerability to heart disease, with anger and hostility being primary factors.

Exercise

Distraction

Relaxation


6) Aerobic Exercise! of stress, including vulnerability to heart disease, with anger and hostility being primary factors.

Moderate exercise adds

two years to your life!

Text lists many benefits – but misses one.

That physical exertion often tricks the SNS into thinking that the threat is over -- Turns off fight or flight response!


7) Distraction of stress, including vulnerability to heart disease, with anger and hostility being primary factors.

Taking one’s mind off problems can help when the stressor involves a waiting period (i.e., did I get the job) but if it is distracting for coping with the stress, it can make it worse!


The SNS is part of the autonomic system. of stress, including vulnerability to heart disease, with anger and hostility being primary factors.

We do not have voluntary control over it.

We do however have indirect control.

Components of Relaxation

Control of Breathing

- changes SNS response


Imagery of stress, including vulnerability to heart disease, with anger and hostility being primary factors. – Nervous system

responds to imagery the same

way it does to reality. Calming

thoughts and images activate

PNS turning off Fight or flight

(SNS) response.

Progressive Relaxation

- systematic tensing and relaxing of muscle groups


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