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Chapter Photo. Chapter Transparency. Mikhail Gorbachev’s policy known as glasnost, or openness, encouraged a free flow of ideas and information. Churches were allowed to open. Dissidents were released from prison. The policy allowed the publication of books by previously banned authors.

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Section 1 dyk

  • Mikhail Gorbachev’s policy known as glasnost, or openness, encouraged a free flow of ideas and information. Churches were allowed to open. Dissidents were released from prison. The policy allowed the publication of books by previously banned authors.

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Section 1 dln 1

I. The Soviet System Under Stress (pages 616–617)

  • A. In 1964, Nikita Khrushchev was removed from office. Alexei Kosygin and Leonid Brezhnev replaced him. During the 1970s, Brezhnev became the main Soviet leader. He wanted to keep Eastern Europe as Communist states. He issued the Brezhnev Doctrine which asserted that the Soviet Union had the right to intervene if communism was threatened in another Communist state.

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I. The Soviet System Under Stress (pages 616–617)

  • B. Brezhnev benefited from détente, a relaxation of tension and improved relations between the USSR and the U.S. Under Brezhnev, the Soviet Union was allowed more access to Western culture. Dissidents—people who spoke out against the regime—were still punished.

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I. The Soviet System Under Stress (pages 616–617)

  • C. The Soviet Union’s economy continued to emphasize heavy industry. The Soviet economy was weakened by a government bureaucracy that discouraged efficiency and encouraged indifference. Collective farmers had no incentive to work hard in the collective work brigades.

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I. The Soviet System Under Stress (pages 616–617)

  • D. In 1979, détente suffered when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. President Carter countered this act of expansion by boycotting the 1980 Moscow Olympics and placing an embargo on the shipment of American grain to the Soviets.

E.Ronald Reagan called the Soviet Union an “evil empire.” He stimulated a new arms race with the Soviets and backed Afghani rebels.

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II. Gorbachev and Soviet Reform (pages 617–619)

  • A. In 1985 the Communist Party chose Mikhail Gorbachev, a reformist, to be the new leader. The basis of his reforms was perestroika, or restructuring.

Mikhail Gorbachev

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II. Gorbachev and Soviet Reform (pages 617–619)

  • B. Gorbachev wanted to start by restructuring economic policy, specifically having limited free enterprise. To meet his goals, he established the Congress of People’s Deputies—a Soviet parliament with elected leaders—which met in 1989. He also established a new state presidency and became the first—and last—Soviet president.

C. Gorbachev’s “New Thinking” led to stunning changes, including the end of the Cold War.

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II. Gorbachev and Soviet Reform (pages 617–619)

  • D. One change was the INF Treaty, signed in 1987. This treaty slowed down the arms race, freeing funds for social and economic programs in the Soviet Union and reducing the debt in the U.S.

E. When Gorbachev stopped giving military support to Communist governments in Eastern Europe, those regimes began to be overthrown. In 1989, a mostly peaceful revolutionary movement swept through Eastern Europe.

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II. Gorbachev and Soviet Reform (pages 617–619)

  • F. Germany was reunified in October 1990 and became a powerful symbol of the end of the Cold War. In 1991, the Soviet Union was dissolved.

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II. Gorbachev and Soviet Reform (pages 617–619)

  • G. The Soviet Union included 92 nationalities and 112 different languages. The Communist Party had kept tensions between them contained, but Gorbachev’s reforms unleashed nationalist movements calling for independence for the republics that made up the Soviet Union. Conservative leaders arrested Gorbachev in August 1991 and tried to seize power, but the president of the Russian Republic—Boris Yeltsin—and thousands of Russians resisted the rebel forces.

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II. Gorbachev and Soviet Reform (pages 617–619)

  • H.Ukraine and Belarus joined Russia in declaring that the Soviet Union had “ceased to exist.” Gorbachev resigned on December 25, 1991, and Boris Yeltsin became the new Russian president.

I. Yeltsin wanted a free market economy but faced economic and social disorder made worse by organized crime and Chechnya’s push for independence.

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Section 1 dln 13

II. Gorbachev and Soviet Reform (pages 617–619)

  • J. In 1999, Yeltsin resigned. Vladimir Putin was elected president in 2000. In fall 2004, he proposed that regional leaders be appointed rather than popularly elected.

Vladimir Putin

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II. Gorbachev and Soviet Reform (pages 617–619)

  • K. Putin took a hard-line policy in Chechnya, vowing to return the largely Muslim state to Russian authority. Fighting grew more intense. In September 2004, rebels from Chechnya seized a school and held hundreds hostage. When Russian troops attempted to end the siege, the fighting between rebels and troops led to the deaths of more than 300 people, most of them schoolchildren. Many critics question Putin’s hard-line stance on this issue.

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Section 2 dyk

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I. Revolutions Solidarity candidates, it was the first time a nation had turned a Communist regime out of office peacefully.inEasternEurope(pages 621–622)

  • A. Workers’ protests led to demands for change in Poland. In 1980, Lech Walesa organized a national trade union in Poland known as Solidarity. In 1988, the Polish regime agreed to free parliamentary elections—the first free election in Eastern Europe in 40 years. In 1990, Walesa was elected president of Poland. Poland’s rapid free-market reforms led to severe unemployment and discontent. Today Poland’s free-market economy is becoming increasingly prosperous.

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I. Revolutions Solidarity candidates, it was the first time a nation had turned a Communist regime out of office peacefully.inEasternEurope(pages 621–622)

  • B. In 1968, Soviet troops crushed the reform movement in Czechoslovakia. In 1988 and 1989, mass demonstrations throughout Czechoslovakia led to the collapse of the Communist government. In December 1989, Václav Havel, a dissident against the Communist government, became president. In 1993 ethnic conflicts between Czechs and Slovaks led to the peaceful division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

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I. Revolutions Solidarity candidates, it was the first time a nation had turned a Communist regime out of office peacefully.inEasternEurope(pages 621–622)

  • C. In 1965, Communist leader Nicolae Ceauşescu and his wife Elena led a dictatorial regime in Romania. His actions angered Romanian people. The army refused to support his repressive regime and, in December 1989, Ceauşescu and his wife were executed. A new government was formed.

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I. Revolutions Solidarity candidates, it was the first time a nation had turned a Communist regime out of office peacefully.inEasternEurope(pages 621–622)

  • D. In 1988 unrest led many East Germans to flee their Communist country. In 1989, mass demonstrations against the Communist regime broke out. By November, the Communist government tore down the Berlin Wall and opened its border with the West. Large numbers of East Germans crossed the border. In 1990, East and West Germany were reunited to form one Germany.

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II. The Disintegration of Yugoslavia Solidarity candidates, it was the first time a nation had turned a Communist regime out of office peacefully. (pages 623–624)

  • A. At the end of the 1980s, Yugoslavia was caught up in the reform movements of Eastern Europe. By 1990, new political parties had emerged and the Communist Party had collapsed.

B. In 1990, the Yugoslav republics of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Macedonia worked for independence. Slobodan Milǒsević, leader of Serbia, rejected independence. In June 1991, Slovenia and Croatia declared their independence. In September 1991, the Yugoslavian army attacked Croatia.

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II. The Disintegration of Yugoslavia Solidarity candidates, it was the first time a nation had turned a Communist regime out of office peacefully. (pages 623–624)

  • C. In 1992, the Serbs attacked Bosnia-Herzegovina. Many Bosnians were Muslims. The Serbs followed a policy of ethnic cleansing—killing them or forcibly removing them from their lands. In 1995 air strikes by NATO bombers helped Bosnian and Croatian forces regain territory lost to Serbia. On December 14, the Serbs signed a formal peace treaty splitting Bosnia into a loose union of a Serb republic and a Muslim-Croat federation.

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II. The Disintegration of Yugoslavia Solidarity candidates, it was the first time a nation had turned a Communist regime out of office peacefully. (pages 623–624)

  • D. In 1998, a war began over Kosovo.In 1974, Tito had made Kosovo an autonomous, or self-governing, province within Yugoslavia. In 1989, Milǒsević took away Kosovo’s autonomous status. Albanians fought against Serbian rule in Kosovo. Serbian forces massacred ethnic Albanians. The United States and NATO tried to arrange a settlement. In the fall elections of 2000, Milǒsević was ousted from power, and tried for war crimes at the International Court of Justice for his role in the massacre of Kosovo civilians. In 2003, Serbia and Montenegro formed a republic.

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Section 2 dln 9

II. The Disintegration of Yugoslavia Solidarity candidates, it was the first time a nation had turned a Communist regime out of office peacefully. (pages 623–624)

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Section 3 dyk

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I. Winds of Change in Western Europe they fear that jobs in these countries will be lost to people in Mexico where wages tend to be much lower. (pages 626–628)

  • A. After 1970, Western European countries had greater economic unity. The European Economic Community (EEC) greatly expanded between 1973 and 1995. By 1992 the European Community (EC) made up the world’s largest single trading bloc.

B. In 1994, the EC became the principle organization within the European Union (EU). Most EU nations planned to abandon their currency in favor of the common European currency, the euro, by January 2002.

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Section 3 DLN-2 they fear that jobs in these countries will be lost to people in Mexico where wages tend to be much lower.


Section 3 dln 3

I. Winds of Change in Western Europe they fear that jobs in these countries will be lost to people in Mexico where wages tend to be much lower. (pages 626–628)

  • C.France’s economy declined in the 1970s. By 1981, the Socialists had become the main party in the National Assembly. Socialist president François Mitterand began measures to aid workers. He nationalized many businesses. Socialist policies failed, however, and France’s economy continued to decline. In 1993, politics in France became conservative. In May 1995, conservative Jacques Chirac was elected president of France.

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I. Winds of Change in Western Europe they fear that jobs in these countries will be lost to people in Mexico where wages tend to be much lower. (pages 626–628)

  • D.Willy Brandt was the first Social Democrat chancellor of West Germany. He received the Nobel Prize in 1971 for his work on a treaty with East Germany that led to greater contact and interaction between the two countries. In 1982, Helmut Kohl formed a new, more conservative government.

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I. Winds of Change in Western Europe they fear that jobs in these countries will be lost to people in Mexico where wages tend to be much lower. (pages 626–628)

  • E. Reunification of the new Germany in 1989 made it the leading power in Europe. Reunification, however, led to economic problems. Eastern Germany needed to be rebuilt and the economy of eastern Germany collapsed. There was high unemployment and severe discontent. This led to attacks against foreigners by right-wing extremists.

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I. Winds of Change in Western Europe they fear that jobs in these countries will be lost to people in Mexico where wages tend to be much lower. (pages 626–628)

  • F. Between 1964 and 1979, Great Britain’s government faced the intense fighting between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland, an ailing economy, and frequent labor strikes. In 1979, Conservative Margaret Thatcher became prime minister. She limited the social welfare system, broke the power of the labor unions, and controlled inflation. Thatcher’s economic policy was known as Thatcherism. Thatcher introduced an unpopular flat-rate tax paid by every adult. In 1997, Labour Party candidate, Tony Blair, won the election for prime minister.

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II. The U.S. Domestic Scene they fear that jobs in these countries will be lost to people in Mexico where wages tend to be much lower.(pages 628–630)

  • A.Richard Nixon became president of the United States in 1968. Nixon’s campaign for “law and order” and a slowdown of racial desegregation appealed to southern whites. The South began a new allegiance to the Republican Party.

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II. The U.S. Domestic Scene they fear that jobs in these countries will be lost to people in Mexico where wages tend to be much lower.(pages 628–630)

  • B. Nixon used illegal methods to gain information about his political opponents, which led to the Watergate scandal. On August 9, 1974, Nixon resigned as president instead of facing possible impeachment.

Richard Nixon bids his staff good-bye after resigning his job as president of the United States.

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II. The U.S. Domestic Scene they fear that jobs in these countries will be lost to people in Mexico where wages tend to be much lower.(pages 628–630)

  • C. Vice-President Gerald Ford became president after Nixon’s resignation. Jimmy Carter beat Ford in the 1976 election. Carter’s administration faced high inflation rates and a drop in the American standard of living. Carter was unable to gain the release of American hostages held by the Iranian government. He lost the 1980 election to Ronald Reagan.

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II. The U.S. Domestic Scene they fear that jobs in these countries will be lost to people in Mexico where wages tend to be much lower.(pages 628–630)

  • D. The Reagan Revolution changed years of U.S. policy. He cut back on the welfare state and greatly increased the military buildup. Spending by Reagan’s administration produced a record government budget deficit—spending more money than collected in revenues.

E. Republican George Bush was elected president after Reagan. He was unable to deal with the deficit problems or the economic downturn.

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II. The U.S. Domestic Scene they fear that jobs in these countries will be lost to people in Mexico where wages tend to be much lower.(pages 628–630)

  • F. Democrat Bill Clinton was elected president in 1992. He oversaw a lengthy economic revival in the United States. During his second term, he was charged with presidential misconduct, but was acquitted of the charges in the Senate. Clinton’s problems helped George W. Bushto win a controversial presidential election in 2000.

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II. The U.S. Domestic Scene they fear that jobs in these countries will be lost to people in Mexico where wages tend to be much lower.(pages 628–630)

  • G. President Bush called for the war on terrorism after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack. The U.S.-led invasion of Iraq was based on statements that the dictator Saddam Hussein possessed weapons of mass destruction (WMDs). After Saddam Hussein was ousted, no WMDs were found.

Saddam Hussein

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II. The U.S. Domestic Scene they fear that jobs in these countries will be lost to people in Mexico where wages tend to be much lower.(pages 628–630)

  • H. In 2004, President Bush won a second term, winning 51 percent of the popular vote to Senator Kerry’s 48 percent.

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Section 4 dyk

  • Starting in the 1960s, South Africa was not allowed to participate in the Olympic Games because of the country’s policy of apartheid—a complete separation of the races. The restriction on South Africa’s participation in the Olympic Games lasted until 1992, after apartheid had ended.

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Section 4 dln 1

I. The Quickening Pace of Change participate in the Olympic Games because of the country’s policy of apartheid—a complete separation of the races. The restriction on South Africa’s participation in the Olympic Games lasted until 1992, after apartheid had ended. (pages 632–634)

  • A. Since World War II, science and technology have revolutionized people’s lives. Governments created a model for scientific research requiring teams of scientists, huge laboratories, and sophisticated equipment. The space race is a good example of this model.

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Section 4 dln 2

I. The Quickening Pace of Change participate in the Olympic Games because of the country’s policy of apartheid—a complete separation of the races. The restriction on South Africa’s participation in the Olympic Games lasted until 1992, after apartheid had ended. (pages 632–634)

  • B. There has been concern about the effects of technology, such as chemical fertilizers, on the environment.

C. In October 1999, the world’s population had reached 6 billion. In some wealthy areas the population is declining and “graying,” or growing older. Soon, the most populous nations in the world will be developing countries.

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Section 4 dln 3

I. The Quickening Pace of Change participate in the Olympic Games because of the country’s policy of apartheid—a complete separation of the races. The restriction on South Africa’s participation in the Olympic Games lasted until 1992, after apartheid had ended. (pages 632–634)

  • D. One reason for Europe’s older population is changing trends in marriage and divorce. Fewer people are marrying and, when they do, they do it at an older age. The divorce rate has risen as well.

E. Since 1970, the number of women in the workforce has continued to rise. The Equal Pay Act was passed in the U.S. in 1963, requiring women to be paid the same as men for the same work.

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Section 4 dln 4

I. The Quickening Pace of Change participate in the Olympic Games because of the country’s policy of apartheid—a complete separation of the races. The restriction on South Africa’s participation in the Olympic Games lasted until 1992, after apartheid had ended. (pages 632–634)

  • F. In the United States, the Supreme Court legalized abortion in Roe v. Wade(1973). Abortion remains a controversial and divisive issue.

G. Despite the women’s movement, women still earn less than men and many face the double burden of working outside and inside the home.

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Section 4 dln 5

I. The Quickening Pace of Change participate in the Olympic Games because of the country’s policy of apartheid—a complete separation of the races. The restriction on South Africa’s participation in the Olympic Games lasted until 1992, after apartheid had ended. (pages 632–634)

  • H. Women are still underrepresented in most national legislatures. Some European countries have adopted gender parity, or policies that encourage more women to become part of government.

I. AIDS, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome, was discovered in 1981. More than 3 million people died of AIDS in 2003, and an estimated 40 million people live with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

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II. Popular Culture and participate in the Olympic Games because of the country’s policy of apartheid—a complete separation of the races. The restriction on South Africa’s participation in the Olympic Games lasted until 1992, after apartheid had ended. National Identify (pages 635–639)

  • A. Popular culture is entertainment created for a mass audience to make a profit. It is mainly American performers and filmmakers who are known throughout the world. Critics of this trend refer to it as cultural imperialism, meaning that Western nations control world cultures much as they controlled colonial governments in the 1800s.

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II. Popular Culture and participate in the Olympic Games because of the country’s policy of apartheid—a complete separation of the races. The restriction on South Africa’s participation in the Olympic Games lasted until 1992, after apartheid had ended. National Identify (pages 635–639)

  • B. More and more since the 1960s, Americans have “exported” television and sports abroad. Viewers around the world have become familiar with American brand names and even American attitudes about family, work, and money. Sports organizations made enormous revenues from television contracts.

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Section 4 dln 9

II. Popular Culture and participate in the Olympic Games because of the country’s policy of apartheid—a complete separation of the races. The restriction on South Africa’s participation in the Olympic Games lasted until 1992, after apartheid had ended. National Identify (pages 635–639)

  • C. Since the Middle Ages, Christianity has dominated the spiritual life of Western society. In the U.S., an evangelical Protestant revival gained strength throughout the 1980s and1990s. Religious trends in the U.S. and Europe have raised the question of what role religion should play in a democracy.

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II. Popular Culture and participate in the Olympic Games because of the country’s policy of apartheid—a complete separation of the races. The restriction on South Africa’s participation in the Olympic Games lasted until 1992, after apartheid had ended. National Identify (pages 635–639)

  • D. Some minority groups in Europe and North America want to preserve their culture or even have their own nation.

E. Most minority movements are peaceful. In Brittany, a region of France that is Celtic in language and power, local communities organize festivals called Fest Noz to celebrate their culture. The province of Quebec, Canada, has campaigned for independence from the rest of Canada for decades.

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II. Popular Culture and participate in the Olympic Games because of the country’s policy of apartheid—a complete separation of the races. The restriction on South Africa’s participation in the Olympic Games lasted until 1992, after apartheid had ended. National Identify (pages 635–639)

  • F. Some minorities use violence to win concessions or gain independence. Northern Irelandhas faced ongoing problems with extremists. In 1921 Ireland was split into the independent and Catholic Irish Republic, and Great Britain-controlled Northern Ireland, which was mostly Protestant.

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Section 4 dln 12

II. Popular Culture and participate in the Olympic Games because of the country’s policy of apartheid—a complete separation of the races. The restriction on South Africa’s participation in the Olympic Games lasted until 1992, after apartheid had ended. National Identify (pages 635–639)

  • G. On January 30, 1972, or “Bloody Sunday,” British troops killed 13 civil rights protesters in Northern Ireland. For the next three decades, the Catholic Irish Republican Army (IRA) employed violence and terror to unite Northern Ireland with the Republic of Ireland. By 2000, about 3,600 people had been killed and 36,000 injured in the “Troubles.”

H. In 1996 the two sides signed the Good Friday Agreement, but the reluctance of the IRA to disarm threatens the peace.

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Chapter summary

Chapter Summary participate in the Olympic Games because of the country’s policy of apartheid—a complete separation of the races. The restriction on South Africa’s participation in the Olympic Games lasted until 1992, after apartheid had ended.

  • The end of the Cold War brought dramatic economic, political, and social changes to Europe and North America. Many of these changes can be understood through the themes of conflict, change, regionalism, and cooperation. Below, some of the major events in postwar society are captured according to these themes.

Chapter Summary


Section focus 1

the former Soviet Union participate in the Olympic Games because of the country’s policy of apartheid—a complete separation of the races. The restriction on South Africa’s participation in the Olympic Games lasted until 1992, after apartheid had ended.

the evolution from communism to capitalism

The Soviet Union faces a long, hard struggle in developing a capitalist economy.

Section Focus 1


Section focus 2

the formation of Solidarity participate in the Olympic Games because of the country’s policy of apartheid—a complete separation of the races. The restriction on South Africa’s participation in the Olympic Games lasted until 1992, after apartheid had ended.

1989

Romania

Section Focus 2


Section focus 3

a larger market for the exports of other nations; more competition in the global market

Western Europeans have put aside differences in the interests of unity.

sacrifice of national sovereignty

Section Focus 3


Section focus 4

D competition in the global market

B

A

C

Section Focus 4


End of custom shows
End of Custom Shows competition in the global market


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