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Human Resource Development. 3 Levels of HRD. Training KSAOs for current job Education Preparation for next job months -> year Development Prepare for wide variety of jobs very long term. Type of HRD. Differences in Needs Assessment. Differences in Instructional Design.

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3 levels of hrd
3 Levels of HRD

  • Training

    • KSAOs for current job

  • Education

    • Preparation for next job

      • months -> year

  • Development

    • Prepare for wide variety of jobs

      • very long term


Type of HRD

Differences in Needs Assessment

Differences in Instructional Design

Different Metrics forEvaluation


Training
Training

  • What does it produce?

Performance

Indicators

Training

  • What are specific performance indicators you can look for in your learner population to measure their improved task performance after their learning?


When should we provide training
When should we provide training?

  • New equipment, software

  • New tasks (job changed)

  • New regulations

  • Performance deficiency (gap)

When should we conduct a needs assessment?

  • Performance deficiency (gap)


Required

Performance

Actual

Performance

Performance

Gap

-

=

  • Job study

  • Task analysis

  • Talk to manager

  • Outputs

  • Job description

  • Time studies

  • Performance records

    • Sales

    • Errors

    • Accidents

  • Survey

  • Interview

  • Observation

How can this

formula help you

in dealing with

training requests?


Types of job performance records 1

Outputs

output/hour

items sold

units produced

inventory turnover

shipments

tasks completed

work backlog

money collected

forms processed

cases handled

productivity

Costs

sales expense

unit costs

costs/account

cost savings

budget variances

program costs

employee turnover

grievances

safety violations

Types of Job Performance Records - 1


Types of job performance records 2

Time

overtime

processing time

lost days

repair time

completion time

training time

work stoppages

order response

late completions

equipment downtime

supervisory time

schedules met

break-in for new people

absenteeism

excessive breaks

time saved

Quality

error rates

re-work

inventory adjustments

rejects

scrap

product defects

shortages

accidents

objectives not met

waste

deviation from standard

product failures

customer complaints

employee complaints

job satisfaction

Types of Job Performance Records - 2


Identify cause s of the problem
Identify Cause(s) of the Problem

  • Most employees would do it if they knew it.

  • Poor job performance always has a cause. In the overwhelming majority of situations, when you discover a gap between required performance and actual performance, it will be one or more of these seven factors of job performance:


Causes of performance problems
Causes of Performance Problems

  • Knowledge & skill

  • Capacity

  • Standards

  • Measurement

  • Feedback

  • Conditions

  • Incentives & motivation


Solutions for performance problems

Knowledge & skill

provide classroom, self-paced instruction

provide practice, job aids, coaching

Capacity

change personnel

Standards

develop/publicize

Measurement

develop/revise

Feedback

provide, improve use

Conditions

reorganize, upgrade, redesign, reduce interference

Incentives

provide/strengthen positive consequences

remove/weaken

negative consequences for good performance

positive consequences for poor performance

Solutions for Performance Problems


When is training the solution

Knowledge & skill

provide classroom, self-paced instruction

provide practice, job aids, coaching

Capacity

change personnel

Standards

develop/publicize

Measurement

develop/revise

Feedback

provide, improve use

Conditions

reorganize, upgrade, redesign, reduce interference

Incentives

provide/strengthen positive consequences

remove/weaken

negative consequences for good performance

positive consequences for poor performance

When is Training the Solution?


Is training the best solution
Is training the best solution?

  • If employees lack the knowledge and skill to perform and the other factors are satisfactory, training is needed.

  • If employees have the knowledge and skill to perform but input, output, consequences, or feedback are inadequate, training may not be the best solution.


Wrong reasons for training
Wrong Reasons for Training

  • MAFIA

  • HEIDI

  • SILI

  • SYC

  • BOC

  • RATS


Wrong reasons for training1
Wrong Reasons for Training

  • MAFIA

    • Management asked for it again

  • HEIDI

    • Hey everybody else is doing it

  • SILI

    • Spend it or lose it

  • SYC

    • Show you care

    • Save your can

  • BOC

    • Butts on chairs, rumps in the room

  • RATS

    • Random acts of training


When you go to er what do you want the doctor to do
When you go to ER, what do you want the doctor to do?

  • Ask questions

  • Run tests

  • Analyze data

  • Diagnosis

  • Prescribe treatment

You have to know the disease to get the right cure.


Needs assessment

Organization

Needs Assessment

Task

Person


The needs assessment process
The Needs Assessment Process

Outcomes

Reasons or “Pressure Points

  • What Trainees Need to Learn

  • Who Receives Training

  • Type of Training

  • Frequency of Training

  • Buy Versus Build Training Decision

  • Training Versus Other HR Options Such as Selection or Job Redesign

What is the Context?

  • Legislation

  • Lack of Basic Skills

  • Poor Performance

  • New Technology

  • Customer Requests

  • New Products

  • Higher Performance Standards

  • New Jobs

Organization Analysis

In What Do They Need Training?

Task Analysis

Person Analysis

Who Needs the Training?


Needs assessment techniques

Questionnaires

Observation

Documentation

Focus

Groups

InterviewsSMEs

Needs Assessment Techniques


Advantages and disadvantages of needs assessment techniques 1 of 3

Technique

Advantages

Disadvantages

Observation

Generates data relevant to work environment

Minimizes interruption of work

Needs skilled observer

Employees’ behavior may be affected by being observed

Questionnaires

Inexpensive

Can collect data from a large number of persons

Data easily summarized

Requires time

Possible low return rates, inappropriate responses

Lacks detail

Only provides information directly related to questions asked

Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Techniques (1 of 3)


Advantages and disadvantages of needs assessment techniques 2 of 3

Technique

Advantages

Disadvantages

Interviews

Good at uncovering details of training needs

Good at uncovering causes and solutions of problems

Can explore unanticipated issues that come up

Questions can be modified

Time consuming

Difficult to analyze

Needs skilled interviewer

Can be threatening to SMEs

Difficult to schedule

SMEs only provide information they think you want to hear

Focus Groups

Useful with complex or controversial issues that one person may be unable or unwilling to explore

Questions can be modified to explore unanticipated issues

Time consuming to organize

Group members provide information they think you want to hear

Status or position differences may limit participation

Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Techniques (2 of 3)


Advantages and disadvantages of needs assessment techniques 3 of 3

Technique

Advantages

Disadvantages

Documentation

(Technical Manuals and Records)

Good source of information on procedure

Objective

Good source of task information for new jobs and jobs in the process of being created

You may not be able to understand technical language

Materials may be obsolete

Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Techniques (3 of 3)


Use more than two methods for collecting information to increase the validity of the analysis

Use multiple sources of information to increase the validity of the analysis

Use more than two methods for collecting information to increase the validity of the analysis


Key concerns of upper midlevel managers trainers in needs assessment

Upper-Level Managers

Midlevel Managers

Trainers

Organizational

Analysis

Is training important to achieve our business objectives?

How does training support our business strategy?

Do I want to spend money on training?

How much?

Do I have the budget to buy training services?

Will managers support training?

Person Analysis

What functions or business units need training?

Who should be trained?

Managers?

Professionals?

Core employees?

How will I identify which employees need training?

Task Analysis

Does the company have the people with the knowledge, skills, and ability needed to compete in the marketplace?

For what jobs can training make the biggest difference in product quality or customer service?

What tasks should be trained?

What knowledge, skills, ability, or other characteristics are necessary?

Key Concerns of Upper- & Midlevel Managers & Trainers in Needs Assessment


The needs analysis process
The Needs Analysis Process

Person Analysis

  • Person Characteristics

  • Input

  • Output

  • Consequences

  • Feedback

  • Organizational Analysis

  • Strategic Direction

  • Support of Managers & Peers for Training

  • Training Resources

Do We Want To Devote Time and Money For Training?

  • Task Analysis or Develop a Competency Model

  • Work Activity (Task)

  • KSAs

  • Working Conditions


Organizational needs assessment
Organizational Needs Assessment

  • Company’s Strategic Direction

  • Support of Managers & Peers

  • Resources

    • budget

    • time

    • training

Organization


Questions to ask in an organizational analysis table 3 3 p 81
Questions to Ask in an Organizational AnalysisTable 3.3, p. 81

  • How might the training content affect our employees’ relationship with our customers?

  • What might suppliers, customers, or partners need to know about the training program?

  • How does this program align with the strategic needs of the business?

  • Should organizational resources be devoted to this program?

  • What do we need from managers and peers for this training to succeed?

  • What features of the work environment might interfere with training?

  • Do we have experts who can help us develop the program content and ensure that we understand the needs of the business as we develop the program?

  • Will employees perceive the training program as an opportunity? reward? punishment? waste of time?


Person needs assessment
Person Needs Assessment

  • Determine source of performance deficiency

  • Identify who needs training

  • Determine readiness

Person


Task needs assessment
Task Needs Assessment

  • Job Analysis

  • Job Description

    • TDRs

  • Job Specifications

    • KSAOs

Task


Steps in a task analysis
Steps in a Task Analysis

  • Select the job(s) to be analyzed.

  • Develop a preliminary list of tasks performed by the job.

  • Validate or confirm the preliminary list of tasks.

  • Identify the knowledge, skills, or abilities necessary to successfully perform each task.


Key points to remember when conducing a task analysis table 3 7 p 95
Key Points to Remember When Conducing a Task AnalysisTable 3.7, p. 95

  • Task analysis should identify both what employees are actually doing and what they should be doing on the job

  • Task analysis begins by breaking the job into duties and tasks

  • Use more than two methods for collecting task information to increase the validity of the analysis

  • For task analysis to be useful, information needs to be collected from subject matter experts (SMEs): job incumbents, managers, employees familiar with the job

  • In deciding how to evaluate tasks, the focus should be on tasks necessary to accomplish the company’s goals and objectives

    • These may not be the tasks that are the most difficult or take the most time


Speedy needs assessment how to do a needs assessment when you think you don t have time

“Speedy needs assessment” & “How to do a needs assessment when you think you don’t have time”

Articles from Training & Development & Training with practical suggestions regarding needs assessment


Speedy needs assessment 8 basic questions
“Speedy needs assessment” assessment when you think you don’t have time”8 Basic Questions

  • 1: What are the OPERATING problems?

  • 2: Are the operating problems caused or contributed to by HUMAN BEHAVIOR?

  • 3: Could the employees perform correctly if they had to

    • Have they done so lately?


8 basic questions con d
8 Basic Questions con’d assessment when you think you don’t have time”

  • 4: Is the desired performance now BEING DEMANDED by employees’ manager?

  • 5: What evidence shows that present PERFORMANCE is a PROBLEM?

  • 6: What OTHER ISSUES might be contributing to this operating problem?


8 basic questions con d1
8 Basic Questions con’d assessment when you think you don’t have time”

  • 7: Based on this analysis, IS TRAINING NEEDED?

  • 8: If training is needed, WILL MANAGERS COMMIT THEMSELVES TO ACTIVE INVOLVEMENT in the training process


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