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Psychology 305A: Theories of Personality Lecture 22

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Psychology 305A: Theories of Personality Lecture 22. 1. Exam: April 16, 12:00-2:30, SRC. The exam will assess your learning of the content of chapters 10, 11, 12 (p. 287-298, 304-314), 13, and 14 (p. 354-357) and related lecture material.

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Exam: April 16, 12:00-2:30, SRC

  • The exam will assess your learning of the content of chapters 10, 11, 12 (p. 287-298, 304-314), 13, and 14 (p. 354-357) and related lecture material.
  • The exam is worth one-third of your final grade if you do not write the optional paper and one-quarter of your final grade if you do write the optional paper.
  • The exam will be scored out of 50 points: 30 multiple choice questions (1 point each), 5-7 extended response questions (2-6 points; totaling 20 points).

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Please arrive on time to facilitate rapid distribution of the exams.

  • Bring a pencil, eraser, pen, and student ID to the exam.
  • All electronic devices must be stored prior to the exam.
  • Bags and backpacks should be left at the front of the room. Valuables may be placed under your seat.
  • Turn in extra copies of the exam at the start of the examination period; university policy requires that all exams be accounted for before students are permitted to leave the examination room.

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Office Hours

I will hold the following office hours in April to assist students with exam preparation:

Thursday, April 11, 1:30-2:30Friday, April 12, 11:30-1:30 Monday, April 15: 1:00-3:00

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Reminder: Your Peer Mentors

Austin Lee: [email protected]

Derek Zhenxinyu Zhang: [email protected]

Contact for study support or to coordinate study groups.

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Your peer mentors:

  • will hold office hours on Friday, April 12, 12:00-2:00, room 2405.
  • have created a survey to assess your experiences with their mentorship. Please complete the survey at: http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/5BVCYZR.

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Analysis of the Personality of a Civil Rights Leader: Malcolm XDiscussion Questions

  • What learning processes (e.g., classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observational learning) do you think shaped Malcolm X’s personality? Identify specific examples to illustrate how these learning processes shaped his personality.

Psychology 305

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Prior to imprisonment, Malcolm X did not adhere to a separatist view regarding race relations. However, after imprisonment, he did adhere to this view, ultimately joining the Nation of Islam. How can Dollard and Miller’s learning theory be used to explain this change in Malcolm X’s attitudes and behaviour?

  • Mischel proposed 5 “cognitive-social learning person variables” to describe personality: competencies, encoding strategies/personal constructs, expectancies, subjective values, and self-regulatory systems/plans. Use these variables to describe Malcolm X’s personality when he was in Boston.

Psychology 305

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4. Grouzet et al. represent goals in a two-dimensional circumplex in which adjacent goals are compatible and distant goals are incompatible. Using this circumplex, explain how Malcolm X’s goals changed across time.

5. Powers proposed the notions of system concepts, principles, and programs in discussing feedback hierarchies. Describe Malcolm X’s system concepts, principles, and programs after his return from Mecca.

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6. Maslow maintained that, in the hierarchy of conative needs, lower-order needs have greater strength, potency, and priority than higher-order needs. Were Malcolm X’s actions consistent with this assertion?

7. Would Maslow’s hierarchy of conative needs adequately explain motivation among collectivists?

Psychology 305

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8. How does Maslow’s notion of the self-actualizer differ from Rogers’ notion of the fully functioning person? Can both concepts be applied to Malcolm X?

9. Deci and Ryan emphasized the importance of “self-determination” in determining well-being. At what point in his life do you believe that Malcolm X achieved self-determination?

Psychology 305

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Some learning concepts:

  • Classical conditioning
  • Operant conditioning
  • Observational learning
  • Extrinsic reinforcement
  • Intrinsic reinforcement
  • Vicarious reinforcement
  • Self-reinforcement

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Example of Classical (Emotional) Conditioning

Negative emotions (UR; e.g., anxiety)

Racism, social isolation (US)

Reflexive

Highly similar

Repeatedly paired

Presenceat school (CS)

Negative emotions(CR)

Learned

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Example of Classical (Emotional) Conditioning

Negative emotions (UR; e.g., anger, fury)

Death of father, burning of home (US)

Reflexive

Highly similar

Repeatedly paired

Presence of “whites” (KKK) (CS)

Negative emotions(CR)

Learned

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Dollard and Miller’s Social-Cognitive Learning Theory

1. Drive

2. Cue

3. Response

4. Reinforcement

5. Habit Hierarchy

Psychology 305

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Mischel’s Cognitive-Social Learning Person Variables

(a) Competencies.

(b) Encoding strategies and personal constructs (i.e., schemas).

(c) Expectancies.

(d) Subjective values.

(e) Self-regulatory systems and plans (this variable is central to the self-regulation perspective on personality).

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Self Acceptance

Friends

Belonging

Social Acceptance

Happiness

Love

“Money”

Theft

Injustice

Pimping

Death of father

Drug Dealing

Poverty

Violence

Sample Schema

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Circumplex of Goals (Grouzet et al., 2005)

Self-Transcendence

Prior to death

Spirituality

Conformity

Community

Extrinsic

Intrinsic

Popularity

Affiliation

Self-Acceptance

As member of Nation of Islam

Financial Success

Years in Boston

Hedonic Pleasure

Physical Self

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Ideal Self-Image or System Concept: Fulfillment contributes to self-actualization, personal wholeness, or personal integration.

Trait/Value or Principle: Broad qualities, can be expressed in multiple ways.

Behaviour or Program: Strategies or scripts, specifies a course of action.

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Ideal Self-Image

(System Concept): Socially useful

Highest

level

Goal 1

Output 2

and

Goal 3

Output 1

and

Goal 2

C1

C2

C3

Input 1

Input 2

Input 3

Trait (Principle):Dedicated

Behaviour (Program): Participate in speaking engagements to promote cause

Output

Hierarchical Feedback Loops

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Ideal Self-Image

(System Concept): Man of integrity

Highest

level

Goal 1

Output 2

and

Goal 3

Output 1

and

Goal 2

C1

C2

C3

Input 1

Input 2

Input 3

Trait (Principle):Honest

Behaviour (Program): Always tell the truth

Output

Hierarchical Feedback Loops

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Factors that may account for self-actualization in the absence of lower-order need satisfaction (Heylighenl, 1991):

1. Prior need satisfaction (a temporal factor).

2. Perceived competence to satisfy lower-order needs (a cognitive factor).

Perceived competence emerges from (a) material competence (in due time) and (b) cognitive competence.

Psychology 305

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Conative Needs

Self- Actualization Needs

Esteem Needs

Belonging Needs

Safety Needs

Physiological Needs

Psychology 305

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A Hierarchy of Conative Needs for Collectivistic Cultures(see Cianci & Gambrel, 2003; Nevis, 1983)

Self- Actualization Needs (in the service of society)

Safety Needs

Physiological Needs

Belonging Needs

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Psychology 305A: Theories of Personality

What is personality?

  • Psychoanalytic Perspective
  • Psychosocial Perspective
  • Learning Perspective
  • Cognitive Perspective
  • Self Regulation Perspective
  • Organismic Perspective
  • Definitions
  • Research Methods
  • Personality Assessment
  • Trait Perspective
  • Motive Perspective
  • Biological Perspective

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