Psychology 305A: Theories of Personality Lecture 22. 1. Exam: April 16, 12:00-2:30, SRC. The exam will assess your learning of the content of chapters 10, 11, 12 (p. 287-298, 304-314), 13, and 14 (p. 354-357) and related lecture material.
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I will hold the following office hours in April to assist students with exam preparation:
Thursday, April 11, 1:30-2:30Friday, April 12, 11:30-1:30 Monday, April 15: 1:00-3:00
Analysis of the Personality of a Civil Rights Leader: Malcolm XDiscussion Questions
Prior to imprisonment, Malcolm X did not adhere to a separatist view regarding race relations. However, after imprisonment, he did adhere to this view, ultimately joining the Nation of Islam. How can Dollard and Miller’s learning theory be used to explain this change in Malcolm X’s attitudes and behaviour?
4. Grouzet et al. represent goals in a two-dimensional circumplex in which adjacent goals are compatible and distant goals are incompatible. Using this circumplex, explain how Malcolm X’s goals changed across time.
5. Powers proposed the notions of system concepts, principles, and programs in discussing feedback hierarchies. Describe Malcolm X’s system concepts, principles, and programs after his return from Mecca.
6. Maslow maintained that, in the hierarchy of conative needs, lower-order needs have greater strength, potency, and priority than higher-order needs. Were Malcolm X’s actions consistent with this assertion?
7. Would Maslow’s hierarchy of conative needs adequately explain motivation among collectivists?
8. How does Maslow’s notion of the self-actualizer differ from Rogers’ notion of the fully functioning person? Can both concepts be applied to Malcolm X?
9. Deci and Ryan emphasized the importance of “self-determination” in determining well-being. At what point in his life do you believe that Malcolm X achieved self-determination?
Negative emotions (UR; e.g., anxiety)
Racism, social isolation (US)
Presenceat school (CS)
Negative emotions (UR; e.g., anger, fury)
Death of father, burning of home (US)
Presence of “whites” (KKK) (CS)
5. Habit Hierarchy
(b) Encoding strategies and personal constructs (i.e., schemas).
(d) Subjective values.
(e) Self-regulatory systems and plans (this variable is central to the self-regulation perspective on personality).
Death of father
Prior to death
As member of Nation of Islam
Years in Boston
Ideal Self-Image or System Concept: Fulfillment contributes to self-actualization, personal wholeness, or personal integration.
Trait/Value or Principle: Broad qualities, can be expressed in multiple ways.
Behaviour or Program: Strategies or scripts, specifies a course of action.
(System Concept): Socially useful
Behaviour (Program): Participate in speaking engagements to promote cause
Hierarchical Feedback Loops
(System Concept): Man of integrity
Behaviour (Program): Always tell the truth
Hierarchical Feedback Loops
Factors that may account for self-actualization in the absence of lower-order need satisfaction (Heylighenl, 1991):
1. Prior need satisfaction (a temporal factor).
2. Perceived competence to satisfy lower-order needs (a cognitive factor).
Perceived competence emerges from (a) material competence (in due time) and (b) cognitive competence.
Self- Actualization Needs
A Hierarchy of Conative Needs for Collectivistic Cultures(see Cianci & Gambrel, 2003; Nevis, 1983)
Self- Actualization Needs (in the service of society)
What is personality?