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Post –Soviet Central Asia. 21 February 2007 Daniel Gray. Dissolution of the USSR. 8 December 1991 Declaration 31 December 1991 Republics are now independently governed. The Bosses. Emomali Rahmonov. Nursultan Nazarbayev. Kurmanbek Bakiyev. Tajikistan. Kazakhstan. Kyrgyzstan.

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Post soviet central asia

Post –Soviet Central Asia

21 February 2007

Daniel Gray


Dissolution of the ussr
Dissolution of the USSR

8 December 1991

Declaration

31 December 1991

Republics are now independently governed


The bosses
The Bosses

Emomali Rahmonov

Nursultan Nazarbayev

Kurmanbek Bakiyev

Tajikistan

Kazakhstan

Kyrgyzstan


The bosses1
The Bosses

Islom Karimov

Gurbanguly

Berdimuhammedow

Saparmurat Niyazov

“Turkmenbashi”

Uzbekistan

Turkmenistan

Karimova




Nationalism
Nationalism

  • Ethnic discrimination in the USSR

    • Economically weak

  • Glasnost

  • Nationalist policies

  • 1992 Election - Rahmon Nabiev

    • Government/Moscow vs. Minorities, Democrats, Islamists

  • Rebels take control of Gov.


War

  • December 1992 - Rebels ousted from Dushanbe

  • Rakhmon Nabiyev replaced by Emomali Rahmonov

  • Reorganize in Afghanistan

  • Ethnic Cleansing

  • UN Peace Treaty 1997


Security issues
Security Issues

Fundamentalism

  • Fergana Valley


Radical terrorist groups
Radical/Terrorist Groups

  • Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU)

  • Hizb ut-Tahrir (HT)

    • Non-violent?


Operation enduring freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom

  • Supported by all Central Asian States

    • Except Turkmenistan

  • Basing

    • Kyrgyzstan

    • Uzbekistan


WMD

  • Soviet Nuclear Legacy in Kazakhstan

    • Semipalatinsk Test Site

  • 181 cases of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials between 1993-2001



Andijan uzbekistan 2005
Andijan, Uzbekistan 2005

  • 10 -11 May 2005

    • Protests against the arrest of 23 local businessmen

  • 12 May – Prison Break

  • 13 May – Massacre

  • Death Toll: 500 - 1000


Aftermath
Aftermath

  • Western Response

  • Canceled support for Afghanistan mission

  • June 2005 - Pact with Russia


Oil

  • Bosporus Straits

  • Caspian Sea

  • How to Export??

  • Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline




Mailuu suu kyrgyzstan
MAILUU-SUU, KYRGYZSTAN

  • Top 10 World’s Worst Polluted Places

  • Radioactive Dump

  • Earthquakes, Floods

  • Affects 23,000 people

    • Possibly Millions!


Aral sea
Aral Sea

  • 1918 – Russia diverts

    Amu Darya/Syr Darya Rivers

  • Poorly Designed Canal System

  • Fourth biggest inland sea

    • Now a desert

  • Biological Weapons Plant

    • Vozrozhdeniya Island


Vozrozhdeniya island kantubek
Vozrozhdeniya Island & Kantubek


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