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Teacher Developed Supports for At-risk Students . Tim Lewis, Ph.D. Barbara Mitchell University of Missouri pbis.org. Starting Point. We can’t “make” students learn or behave We can create environments to increase the likelihood students learn and behave

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Teacher Developed Supports for At-risk Students

Tim Lewis, Ph.D.

Barbara Mitchell

University of Missouri

pbis.org


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Starting Point

  • We can’t “make” students learn or behave

  • We can create environments to increase the likelihood students learn and behave

  • Environments that increase the likelihood are guided by a core curriculum and implemented with consistency and fidelity


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Big Ideas

  • Using data at each step of the process

  • Intervention selected based on presenting behavior pattern

  • Modify environment (classroom) to promote practice opportunities & meet “function”


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Essential Features

Understand interaction between behavior and the teaching environment

Behavior is functionally related to the teaching environment

Build Positive Behavior Support Plans that teach pro-social “replacement” behaviors

Create environments to support the use of pro-social behaviors (practice, practice, practice)

Around individual student need / self-management

Classroom

School-wide


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Basic Steps in FBA-BIP Process

Conduct functional behavioral assessment

Create plan based on functional assessment outcome

Develop infra-structure to support behavior change (system change)


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Positive Behavior Support Plan

  • Teach replacement behavior(s) that result in same/similar outcome

  • Environment should not allow problem behavior to result in previous outcomes

  • Ideally replacement behavior should be more efficient than problem behavior


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How do schools get there?

Build parallel systemic processes

  • Provide school/district teams with a process to address the presenting challenge

  • Develop a parallel process for districts/states to support school implementation and continue to expand with integrity


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Are School Teams Ready?

  • 80% or better on SET

  • Action plan to maintain Universals

  • Use data in team meetings

  • Create a decision rule to identify students in need

  • Assessment to identify what supports students need

  • Strategy to implement classroom-based supports

  • Equal emphasis on systems, data and practice supports



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Classroom Challenges

Students spend majority of their school day in the classroom

Majority of “discipline problems” originate in the classroom and often result in removal from instruction

Remaining engaged in instruction essential to student academic and social success

“Culture” of education often reinforces ineffective practices and creates barriers to implementing effective practices


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Universals: Classroom

Behavior management

Teaching routines

Positive student-adult interactions

Instructional management

Curriculum & Instructional design

Environmental management

Student Self-Management


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Universals: Classroom

  • Classroom expectations/rules defined and taught

  • Classroom routines defined and taught

  • “4:1” positive feedback

  • Active supervision

  • Students actively engaged

  • Multiple opportunities to respond

  • Minors addressed quickly and quietly/privately

  • School wide procedures for majors are followed


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Connecting Classrooms to SW-PBS Efforts

  • Tie academic and social behavior prevention efforts

  • Maximize time student spends in instruction & learning (i.e., keeping in class vs. sending them out)

  • Build expertise within the school via the PBS team

  • Focused professional development

    • Brief in-service, multiple practice opportunities, structured feedback

  • Move to collaborative problem solving

    • Peer coaching, model/demonstrations


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Structural Analysis Setting Factors Assessment Tool

  • Level 1: Classroom Set-up and Structure

  • Level 2: Context Specific Activities

  • Level 3: Instructional Delivery and Tasks

  • Level 4: Student Behavior

    Stichter, J. P., Lewis, T. J., Johnson, N., & Trussell, R. (2004). Toward a structural assessment: Analyzing the merits of an assessment tool for a student with E/BD. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 30, 25-40.


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Applied Work in Progress

A Systematic Process to Implement Individual Plans


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Background and Context

  • PBS in Columbia Public Schools

    • 18 elementary buildings

    • 3 middle schools

    • 3 junior highs

    • 3 high school programs

    • 17,000 students


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Gentry Middle School

  • Three core teams per grade level

    • Five general education teachers

    • One special education

  • Elective team

  • Literacy support center

  • Self-contained/Special education

  • Administrative team


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PBS at Gentry Year 1-6

  • Universal Features

    • PBS team

    • Building wide expectations (RRKS) & Matrix

    • Lesson plans and teaching schedule

    • Track discipline data

    • System for acknowledging (RRKS Ribbon)

    • Continuum of response

    • Document minors (RRKS TOC)


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Building a System to Implement Individual Plans

SAT-STAT-RRKS


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Method for Communicating Practice

  • SAT Process

  • Teacher Assistance and Support

  • Targeted/Small Group Interventions

  • Individual Student Plans

SAT Team

Counselors, Administrators,

School Psych, &

Behavior Specialist

* Meets Weekly

  • Core Team/Classrooms

  • Implement AIS

  • Monitor Progress

  • Evaluate Outcomes

STAT Team

Core Team Facilitator,

SAT Partner, &

Core Team Teachers

* Meets Weekly

  • School-Wide Systems

  • Matrix

  • Lesson Plans

  • School-Wide Data

  • Acknowledgement

  • Communication

RRKS Team

Core Team Representative

District PBS Support

Building Administrator and Counselors

* Meets Monthly


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Provide Ongoing Support

  • Periodic, intensive, with follow-up

    • Classroom/team universals

    • AIS process

    • Follow-up AIS

    • Feedback and systems maintenance

  • Weekly, skills-based, with modeling and feedback


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    Designing a Process for Implementing Individual Plans

    Gentry AIS and FBA Matrix


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    Intervention Strategy Process

    • Assemble data

    • Complete a student interview

    • Define the problem behavior

    • Complete a student schedule

    • Develop hypothesis

    • Identify replacement behavior (s)

    • Construct environmental supports

    • Delineate positive and response outcomes

    • Communicate action to others involved

    • Implement strategies

    • Monitor and document progress


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    Intervention Strategy Process

    • Assemble data

    • Complete a student interview

    • Define the problem behavior

    • Complete a student schedule

    • Develop hypothesis

    • Identify replacement behavior (s)

    • Construct environmental supports

    • Delineate positive and response outcomes

    • Communicate action to others involved

    • Implement strategies

    • Monitor and document progress


    Intervention strategy process29 l.jpg
    Intervention Strategy Process

    • Assemble data

    • Complete a student interview

    • Define the problem behavior

    • Complete a student schedule

    • Develop hypothesis

    • Identify replacement behavior (s)

    • Construct environmental supports

    • Delineate positive and response outcomes

    • Communicate action to others involved

    • Implement strategies

    • Monitor and document progress


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    Gentry FBA Matrix

    Lewis, 2008


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    Outcomes and Results

    Student Data

    ODR-RRKS TOC-Attendance-Grades


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    Intervention Strategies Implemented

    • Targeted Classroom Intervention

      • Increase precorrects & feedback

    • Small Group Intervention

      • Check-in/Check-out

    • Individualized Intervention

      • CICO with modified course schedule


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    Monitor Progress

    Student 1


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    Evaluate Outcomes

    • Questions to Consider…

      • Is intervention being implemented with integrity?

      • Does intervention match the function of student behavior?

      • Does the student need more intensive, individualized support?


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    Lessons Learned

    Use data

    Select intervention

    Modify environment


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    Build Buy-In

    • Start small

    • Training on function based intervention

    • Same things we do for students…

      • Teach expected behavior

      • Provide support

      • Reinforce reasonable approximation

      • Acknowledge success

    • Outcome data


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    Big Ideas

    • Using data at each step of the process

    • Intervention selected based on presenting behavior pattern

    • Modify environment (classroom) to promote practice opportunities & meet “function”


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    Teacher Developed Supports for At-risk Students

    Tim Lewis, Ph.D.

    Barbara Mitchell

    University of Missouri


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    Method for Communicating Practice

    • SAT Process

    • Teacher Assistance and Support

    • Targeted/Small Group Interventions

    • Individual Student Plans

    SAT Team

    Counselors, Administrators,

    School Psych, &

    Behavior Specialist

    * Meets Weekly

    • Core Team/Classrooms

    • Implement AIS

    • Monitor Progress

    • Evaluate Outcomes

    STAT Team

    Core Team Facilitator,

    SAT Partner, &

    Core Team Teachers

    * Meets Weekly

    • School-Wide Systems

    • Matrix

    • Lesson Plans

    • School-Wide Data

    • Acknowledgement

    • Communication

    RRKS Team

    Core Team Representative

    District PBS Support

    Building Administrator and Counselors

    * Meets Monthly


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