Status of the Laser Risk Reduction Program at LaRC
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Status of the Laser Risk Reduction Program at LaRC Michael Kavaya, Upendra Singh NASA/LaRC Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds Sedona, AZ Feb. 1-3, 2005. X-Centric. LRRP was R&D-centric and knowledge-centric

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Status of the Laser Risk Reduction Program at LaRC Michael Kavaya, Upendra Singh NASA/LaRC

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Status of the Laser Risk Reduction Program at LaRC

Michael Kavaya, Upendra Singh

NASA/LaRC

Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds

Sedona, AZ

Feb. 1-3, 2005


X-Centric

  • LRRP was R&D-centric and knowledge-centric

  • LRRP was jointly funded by Earth Science Enterprise and Aerospace Technology Enterprise: ~50/50

  • Jan. 14, 2004 – NASA began Exploration Initiative

  • NASA HQ Reorganization

  • ATE part of LRRP given to Exploration Systems Mission Directorate

  • ESMD held ICP competition: ESTO/LaRC/GSFC proposal accepted – LLTE; funding is 50% x (15%, 42.5%, 42.5%)

  • FY05 – big drop in total funding

  • Now LRRP is Exploration-centric

  • LRRP never has been earth science mission-centric


LRRP LaRC Funding

Begin Laser/Lidar 4 Exploration

Begin Laser Risk Reduction Program

Begin NASA’s Exploration Initiative

* Different definitions under BAU & FCA

** Was 2.6 until 11/30/04

*** Includes ~ 4 surfeit FTEs

Begin Full Cost Accounting


LaRC Components Of LRRP, FY02-04

  • 2-Micron Pulsed Transmitter Laser Development

  • Pump Laser Diode Arrays Development, Characterization, & Qualification (792 nm)

  • Wavelength Conversion From 1-Micron to UV, High E

  • Detector/Receiver Advancement For Direct and Coherent Detection at 2-Microns

  • Laser Physics, New Materials


Out 1

Out 2

Transimpedance

Amplifiers

V

V

cc1

cc2

Capacitor

GND

V

V

b1

b2

Al2O3 Substrate

75 mm InGaAs Detectors

LaRC LRRP Accomplishments

  • Discovered more efficient 2-micron laser material - mitigates large resource req’t of s/c

  • Demonstrated over 1 Joule pulse energy at 2 microns; (world record by order of magnitude) - enables active wind & CO2 measurement

  • Designed fully conductively cooled 2 micron laser head - mitigates thermal mgmt risk of high-power lasers

  • Developed diode laser characterization and lifetime facilities - to understand failure modes of future solid state lasers

  • Developed innovative UV generation architectures - enablers for trop ozone

  • Developed 2-micron detector characterization facility - to enable better detector fabrication

  • Developed high responsivity detector

  • Built first integrated receiver breadboard for 2-micron coherent lidar - more compact & robust


LaRC Components Of LRRP, FY05-07

Task 1. 2-Micron Pulsed Laser Transmitter

2-Micron Testbed

Compact 2-Micron Laser (1a)

12/04Develop requirements for an engineering hardened 2-micron laser

3/05 Develop conceptual engineering design for a hardened 2-micron laser test bed

8/05 Complete mechanical design

9/05 Critical design review

Amplifier Development (1b)

10/04 Complete laser diode coupling efficiency analysis

1/05 Complete thermal and stress analysis

4/05 Complete amplifier head design

8/05 Complete amplifier module design

Phase Conjugate Mirror (1c)

12/04 Develop criteria for selecting potential PCM approaches compatible with 2-micron lasers

5/05 Develop and improve amplifier models to optimize the amplifier performance with PCM

technology


LaRC Components Of LRRP, FY05-07

Task 1. 2-Micron Pulsed Laser Transmitter (cont.)

Tm Fiber Pumped Ho Laser (1d)

3/05 Develop a model to simulate an end-pumped Ho laser

3/05 Characterize the commercial Tm fiber laser

6/05 Complete a design for a CW Ho laser directly pumped by Tm fiber laser

9/05 Complete a continuous wave Ho laser directly pumped by Tm fiber laser

Radiation & Contamination Mitigation (1e)

4/05 Define the radiation hardness levels and generate parts list of potential space-bound

components

9/05 Develop and design contamination testing station

Task 2. Mars Orbiter Lidar

Modeling & Requirements (2a)

7/05 Lidar performance model of Mars wind measurement

7/05 Rapidly switched seed source

8/05 Lidar performance model of Mars CO2 measurement

9/05 Design of orbiting lidar system

9/05 Double-pulsed wavelength-switched injection seeding validation


LaRC Components Of LRRP, FY05-07

Task 3. 792-nm Laser Diode Arrays

Characterization and Qualification (3a)

6/05 Develop a setup for measuring package-induced stresses

9/05 Evaluate different LDAs from different suppliers

Technology Advancement Addressing Reliability Issues (3b)

1/05 Design and fabricate LDAs with improved geometry

6/05 Fabricate experimental LDAs using advanced composite submount materials

Task 4. Detector Development For 2-Micron Direct DIAL

3/05 Develop phototransistors suitable for 2 micron with sensitivity > 1000 A/W at 2 microns, 200 micron diameter collecting area, NEP < 2E-14 W/Hz**0.5, and QE of 80%

4/05 Validate detector performance in subsystem

7/05 Design and build a mask with standard collecting area diameter of 1000 microns


LaRC Components Of LRRP, FY05-07

Task 5. UV Wavelength Conversion Technologies from 1 Micron

6/05 Complete RISTRA OPO and SFG based nonlinear optics setup generating 320 nm wavelength

9/05 Complete the integration of the Nd:YAG pump laser and nonlinear optics setup generating 308 nm wavelength

Task 6. Advanced Receiver For 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar

3/05 Design optimized wideband receiver boards (0.5, 1.0, 5.0 GHz)

9/05 Fabricate and test 500 MHz receiver board


Conclusions

  • LRRP is a great idea, but by no means the only thing that needs doing

  • LRRP has survived so far the upheavals at NASA

  • The new form of LRRP will continue to advance technology helpful to the global winds measurement

  • NASA does not appoint a measurement “shepherd” with a budget to oversee theory, modeling, technology devel., technology and technique validation, and space readiness validation related to that one measurement. I wonder if that approach would succeed?

  • Will Mars be a stepping stone to earth?


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