Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)
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Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) Submission Title: [ Self-Organizing MAC Issues for BAN ] Date Submitted: [ 15th July, 2008 ]

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Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)

Submission Title:[Self-Organizing MAC Issues for BAN]

Date Submitted: [15thJuly, 2008]

Source: [Seung-Hoon Park / Ranjeet Kumar Patro / Noh-Gyoung Kang / Chihong Cho / Eun-Tae Won] Company [Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd.]

Address [416, Maetan-3dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, 443-742, Korea]

Voice: [+82-31-279-4579], FAX: [+82-31-279-5130],

E-Mail: [shannon.park@samsung.com]

Re: []

Abstract: [This document describes the necessity of self-organizing concept for BAN system]

Purpose: [To promote discussion within the BAN group of the necessity of self-organizing MAC]

Notice: This document has been prepared to assist the IEEE P802.15. It is offered as a basis for discussion and is not binding on the contributing individual(s) or organization(s). The material in this document is subject to change in form and content after further study. The contributor(s) reserve(s) the right to add, amend or withdraw material contained herein.

Release: The contributor acknowledges and accepts that this contribution becomes the property of IEEE and may be made publicly available by P802.15.

Seung-Hoon Park et al., Samsung


Self organizing mac issues for ban

Self-Organizing MAC Issues for BAN Area Networks (WPANs)

“Global order can arise from local interactions”

<Alan Turing>

Seung-Hoon Park et al., Samsung


What is self organization
What is Self-Organization? Area Networks (WPANs)

  • Each individual entity is organized without any external or central dedicated control entity

  • Through local interactions & simple rule, emergent behavior (structure or pattern) is came out

Seung-Hoon Park et al., Samsung


Self organization example time synchronization of fire flies
Self-Organization Example Area Networks (WPANs): Time Synchronization of Fire-flies

  • Modeling one fire-fly

    • Integrate-and-fire oscillator

  • Modeling two fire-flies

    • Coupled integrate-and-fire oscillator

    • Firing of one oscillator causes other oscillator to increment phase

Synchronized!

Seung-Hoon Park et al., Samsung


Properties of self organized system
Properties of Self-Organized System Area Networks (WPANs)

Seung-Hoon Park et al., Samsung


Protocols of ban
Protocols of BAN Area Networks (WPANs)

  • BAN requirements

    • Energy efficiency from minimizing collisions, overhearing, Idle listening, or protocol overhead

    • Low complexity for limited sensor capability

  • Considerable protocols to meet BAN requirements

    • Channel access

    • Topology

    • Time synchronization

  • Dense condition of nodes on and around the body

    • Topology does not change frequently

    • 1-hop transmission in most cases

    • Time synchronization is easier in the sparse condition

  • Channel access is most considerable challenge for BAN performance

Seung-Hoon Park et al., Samsung


Contention based channel access
Contention-based Channel Access Area Networks (WPANs)

  • Random access

  • Pros

    • resource reservation is not preceded

    • high scalability, high adaptability

  • Cons

    • channel monitoring in idle mode  high energy consumption

    • contention for the channel  long delay

    • scheduling to reduce collision  control overhead

    • QoS is not guaranteed

Seung-Hoon Park et al., Samsung


Contention free channel access
Contention-free Channel Access Area Networks (WPANs)

  • Scheduled access

  • Pros

    • Low energy consumption

    • Low delay & guaranteed QoS

  • Cons

    • Pre-defined resource slot  improper bandwidth utilization

    • Low scalability  hierarchical structure is required

    • Time synchronization is required

    • Centralized scheduling

      • channel state information & channel assignment overhead

      • peer-to-peer direct communication is impossible

      • lack of flexibility when the amount or the period of traffic generated by a node vary with time

Seung-Hoon Park et al., Samsung


Hybrid channel access
Hybrid Channel Access Area Networks (WPANs)

  • Tradeoff & mix-up between contention based and contention-free channel access

  • Pros

    • Adaptability to the changing & heterogeneous traffic load

  • Cons

    • Too much control overhead & high system complexity to provide hybrid benefits

    • Support for real-time VBR traffic is not easy

  • Centralized control is not sufficient to correspond to dynamic change of system condition

  • Can distributed control solve this problem?

Seung-Hoon Park et al., Samsung


Centralized system
Centralized System Area Networks (WPANs)

permanent control

(fixed hierarchies)

C

S1

S2

S3

S4

Seung-Hoon Park et al., Samsung


Distributed system
Distributed System Area Networks (WPANs)

temporary control

(dynamic organization)

C

S2

System A

System B

System C

Application

S1

S4

Distributed control, i.e. middleware architecture

Local system control (HW, OS)

Local system control (HW, OS)

Local system control (HW, OS)

S3

Communication network

Seung-Hoon Park et al., Samsung


Self organized system

C Area Networks (WPANs)

C

C

C

C

C

S1

S3

S5

S6

S4

S2

Self-Organized System

Local interactions (environment, neighborhood)

Local system control

Simple local behavior

Seung-Hoon Park et al., Samsung


System comparison by control type
System Comparison by Control Type Area Networks (WPANs)

Seung-Hoon Park et al., Samsung


Basic methods in self organized system
Basic Methods in Self-Organized System Area Networks (WPANs)

  • Positive and negative feedback

    • Positive feedback: amplification, accelerated system response

    • Negative feedback: suppression, stabilization

  • Interactions among individuals and with the environment

    • Direct communication among neighboring systems

    • Indirect communication via the environment

      • Interaction with the environment

  • Probabilistic techniques

    • leaving local optima

    • adaptability to dynamics

Seung-Hoon Park et al., Samsung


Self organizing channel access
Self-Organizing Channel Access Area Networks (WPANs)

  • Positive and negative feedback

    • Control parameters for protocol signaling

    • Control the resources for medium access

      • timing, number of slots, power, etc

  • Interactions among individuals and with the environment

    • Direct

      • intensive protocol inherent interactions between neighboring nodes to detect, avoid or prevent collisions

    • Indirect

      • information exchange using signal strength measurements

    • Emergent functionality (time synchronization or channel assignment, etc) based on exchanged information or interacting protocol messages

  • Probabilistic techniques

    • Reduced collision probability through randomized medium access

    • Convergence for fairness or mutual exclusion

Seung-Hoon Park et al., Samsung


Self organizing channel access1
Self-Organizing Channel Access Area Networks (WPANs)

  • Referential MAC algorithms

    • Sensor MAC

      • supports multiple schedules and long sleep cycles with adaptive listening

    • Power Control MAC

      • well-controlled transmission power, can be combined with any RTS/CTS based MAC protocol

    • WiMedia MAC

      • distributed MAC using DRP (Distributed Reservation Protocol) and PCA (Prioritized Channel Access)

Seung-Hoon Park et al., Samsung


Conclusion
Conclusion Area Networks (WPANs)

  • BAN MAC has unique requirement

    • Energy efficiency

    • Scalability

    • QoS

    • Reliability

    • Robustness

    • Lightweight system

  • Self-Organization techniques are needed to meet these complex requirementsin the resource-limited sensor condition

Seung-Hoon Park et al., Samsung


References
References Area Networks (WPANs)

  • [1] “Self-Organization in Sensor and Actor Networks”, Falko Dressler, WILEY; ISBN: 978-0-470-02820-9; Hardcover; 386 pages; January 2008

  • [2] “Self-organization in communication networks: principles and design paradigms”, Prehofer, C.; Bettstetter, C.; Communications Magazine, IEEE, Volume 43, Issue 7 , July 2005 Page(s):78 – 85, DOI 10.1109/MCOM.2005.1470824

  • [3] “Self-organisation in future mobile communications”, Spilling, A.G.; Nix, A.R.; Beach, M.A.; Harrold, T.J.; Electronics & Communication Engineering Journal, Volume 12, Issue 3 , June 2000 Page(s):133 - 147

  • [4] IEEE 802.15-08-0053-01-0006, “The MAC Protocol Requirements for BAN”, Maulin Patel, Philips

  • [5] IEEE 802.15-08-0305-00-0006, “MAC considerations of Non-medical Application for the BAN”, SungHyup Lee, KORPA

  • [6] IEEE 802.15-08-0331-01-0006, “Literature Review of Energy Efficient MAC in WSN/BAN”, Hind Chebbo, Fujitsu

  • [7] IEEE 802.15-08-0334-02-0006, “A Perspective of the BAN MAC”, Okundu Omeni, Toumaz Technology Ltd

  • [8] “Fireflies as Role Models for Synchronization in Ad Hoc Networks”, Tyrrell, Alexander; Auer, Gunther; Bettstetter, Christian; Bio-Inspired Models of Network, Information and Computing Systems, 2006. 1st , Dec. 2006 Page(s):1 – 7, DOI 10.1109/BIMNICS.2006.361799

Seung-Hoon Park et al., Samsung


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