Chapter 8 collective behavior and social movements
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Chapter 8: Collective Behavior and Social Movements. COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR. Collective behavior- -voluntary behavior of large numbers of people that often occurs spontaneously and which frequently violates the norms and values of dominant culture.

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Chapter 8: Collective Behavior and Social Movements

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Chapter 8 collective behavior and social movements

Chapter 8: Collective Behavior and Social Movements


Collective behavior

COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR

Collective behavior--voluntary behavior of large numbers of people that often occurs spontaneously and which frequently violates the norms and values of dominant culture.

Collectivity--a relatively large number of people whose interactions and behaviors may undermine or bypass established patterns of behavior.


Types of collective behavior

TYPES OF COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR

Crowd--a temporary gathering of a large number of people who share a common focus of activity or attention and who influence each other. Types:

  • Conventional crowd--group of people who come together for a scheduled event.

  • Casual crowd--large number of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time, though they may interact little if at all, such as people gathered in a shopping mall.

  • Expressive crowd--provides the opportunity to express pent-up emotions.

  • Protest crowd--activities are directed toward the achievement of specific political aims.


Acting crowd

ACTING CROWD

Three forms:

  • Panic--a form of crowd behavior that occurs when a large number of people perceive a threat – either real or imagined – and react with strong emotions and often self-destructive behavior.

  • Riot--a collectivity acting violently as a result of deeply held emotions, but whose behavior isn’t directed at a specific target

  • Mob---- is highly emotional crowd whose members engage in or intend to engage in violent behavior directed toward a specific target.


Theories of crowd behavior

THEORIES OF CROWD BEHAVIOR

Contagion theory--views crowds as providing their members with a cloak of anonymity, which in turn enables people to abandon personal responsibility for their actions and to behave in irrational and irresponsible ways.

Convergence theory--states that people bring like-minded behavioral expectations into a crowd setting.

Emergent norm theory--stresses that the behavior of crowds is varied and difficult to predict.


Mass behavior

MASS BEHAVIOR

Mass--large number of people who share a specific interest or activity but who are spatially dispersed.

Mass behavior--collective behavior among peoplewho are spatially dispersed from one another. Several forms.


Forms of mass behavior

FORMS OF MASS BEHAVIOR

Rumors--unsubstantiated information about a subject that is spread informally.

Gossip--rumor about an individual’s personal affairs.


Forms of mass behavior1

FORMS OF MASS BEHAVIOR

Mass Hysteria--is a form of dispersed – rather than concentrated in a crowd – collective behavior whereby people respond to a real or imagined threat with irrational and often self-destructive behavior.

http://www.salemwitchmuseum.com/about.html

Salem Witch Museum


Types of mass behavior

TYPES OF MASS BEHAVIOR

Mass Suicide--three or more people killing themselves together. They have a common element of interest; and, all or nearly all of the members agree to commit suicide at the same time.

http://www.anw.com/halebopp/heaven.htm

Heavens Gate member’s appearance

after suicide.


Types of mass behavior1

TYPES OF MASS BEHAVIOR

Fashion and Fads--form of behavior that is widely and enthusiastically copied but which lasts only a short period of time. They represent change that has a less consequential impact than other types of social change and are, more often than not, seen as harmless fun.

http://www.fiftiesweb.com/fashion/ducktail.htm


Types of mass behavior2

TYPES OF MASS BEHAVIOR

Public Opinion--consists of widespread attitudes and beliefs among a population, frequently involving controversial issues, which often are communicated to policy makers.

http://www.datausainc.com/index.htm


Types of mass behavior3

TYPES OF MASS BEHAVIOR

Propaganda--a deliberate attempt by a collective or an individual to shape, control, or change the attitudes of other collectives or individuals by the use of some form of communication. Propaganda:

  • is deliberate;

  • aims to control or alter people’s attitudes;

  • aims to produce predictable behavior by those who have had their attitudes controlled or changed; and

  • does not depend on violence or bribery.

    http://carmen.artsci.washington.edu/propaganda/transfer.htm


Social movements

SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

Social Movement--people organized to act collectively and intentionally in order to promote or resist social change and who are willing to use non-institutionalized means such as protest demonstrations and civil disobedience to achieve their aims.


Types of social movements

TYPES OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

Reform Movements--seek a specified change in a society that would apply to all members of that society.

http://www.madd.org/home/


Types of social movements1

TYPES OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

Revolutionary Movements--seek widespread, total change in a society. Such movements typically work outside established, institutional channels in an attempt to dramatically remake society.

http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Classroom/9912/malcolmx.html

Malcolm X


Types of social movements2

TYPES OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

Expressive Movements--seek to produce substantive change within individuals, rather than in society at large.

http://www.recoveryemporium.com/


Types of social movements3

TYPES OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

Alternative Movements--seek limited changes within individuals or in some aspect of their behavior.

http://www.promisekeepers.org/

A million men at the cross.


Stages of social movements

STAGES OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

  • Emergence--dissatisfaction and concern exist among a group of people who believe that change is both necessary as well as holding the promise of success.

  • Coalescence--construct a vision for the movement as well as a strategy and tactics to achieve their goals. Organizations within the movement begin to emerge and solidify during this stage.

  • Bureaucratization--movement organizations become formalized and professionalized.

  • Decline--movements change over time. They decline for a variety of reasons.


Theories of social movements

THEORIES OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

Relative Deprivation--social movements emerge among segments of the population that feel deprived of rights, privileges, and possessions they believed are enjoyed by other members of the society.

Social inequality on Wall Street


Theories of social movements1

THEORIES OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

Structural Strain--identifies six factors that encourage the development of social movements. These factors are additive; each must be present in order for a movement to emerge. These factors are:

  • Structural conduciveness

  • Structural strain

  • Generalized belief

  • Precipitating factors

  • Mobilization for action

  • Weakened social control


Theories of social movements2

THEORIES OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

Resource Mobilization theory--focuses on the role that resources play in the emergence and success of social movements


Theories of social movements3

THEORIES OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

New Social Movements theory--points out that many contemporary movements are substantively different from older social movements. Many modern movements span national boundaries, such as the environmental movement, the peace movement, and the gay and lesbian movement.

http://www.ngltf.org/index.cfm


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