Chapter 8: Collective Behavior and Social Movements. COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR. Collective behavior- -voluntary behavior of large numbers of people that often occurs spontaneously and which frequently violates the norms and values of dominant culture.
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Collective behavior--voluntary behavior of large numbers of people that often occurs spontaneously and which frequently violates the norms and values of dominant culture.
Collectivity--a relatively large number of people whose interactions and behaviors may undermine or bypass established patterns of behavior.
Crowd--a temporary gathering of a large number of people who share a common focus of activity or attention and who influence each other. Types:
Contagion theory--views crowds as providing their members with a cloak of anonymity, which in turn enables people to abandon personal responsibility for their actions and to behave in irrational and irresponsible ways.
Convergence theory--states that people bring like-minded behavioral expectations into a crowd setting.
Emergent norm theory--stresses that the behavior of crowds is varied and difficult to predict.
Mass--large number of people who share a specific interest or activity but who are spatially dispersed.
Mass behavior--collective behavior among peoplewho are spatially dispersed from one another. Several forms.
Rumors--unsubstantiated information about a subject that is spread informally.
Gossip--rumor about an individual’s personal affairs.
Mass Hysteria--is a form of dispersed – rather than concentrated in a crowd – collective behavior whereby people respond to a real or imagined threat with irrational and often self-destructive behavior.
Salem Witch Museum
Mass Suicide--three or more people killing themselves together. They have a common element of interest; and, all or nearly all of the members agree to commit suicide at the same time.
Heavens Gate member’s appearance
Fashion and Fads--form of behavior that is widely and enthusiastically copied but which lasts only a short period of time. They represent change that has a less consequential impact than other types of social change and are, more often than not, seen as harmless fun.
Public Opinion--consists of widespread attitudes and beliefs among a population, frequently involving controversial issues, which often are communicated to policy makers.
Propaganda--a deliberate attempt by a collective or an individual to shape, control, or change the attitudes of other collectives or individuals by the use of some form of communication. Propaganda:
Social Movement--people organized to act collectively and intentionally in order to promote or resist social change and who are willing to use non-institutionalized means such as protest demonstrations and civil disobedience to achieve their aims.
Reform Movements--seek a specified change in a society that would apply to all members of that society.
Revolutionary Movements--seek widespread, total change in a society. Such movements typically work outside established, institutional channels in an attempt to dramatically remake society.
Expressive Movements--seek to produce substantive change within individuals, rather than in society at large.
Alternative Movements--seek limited changes within individuals or in some aspect of their behavior.
A million men at the cross.
Relative Deprivation--social movements emerge among segments of the population that feel deprived of rights, privileges, and possessions they believed are enjoyed by other members of the society.
Social inequality on Wall Street
Structural Strain--identifies six factors that encourage the development of social movements. These factors are additive; each must be present in order for a movement to emerge. These factors are:
Resource Mobilization theory--focuses on the role that resources play in the emergence and success of social movements
New Social Movements theory--points out that many contemporary movements are substantively different from older social movements. Many modern movements span national boundaries, such as the environmental movement, the peace movement, and the gay and lesbian movement.