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WORKPACKAGE 4 Collection & Transport O. Tabasaran, D. Steinbach, A. Schultheis, K. Fischer PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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WORKPACKAGE 4 Collection & Transport O. Tabasaran, D. Steinbach, A. Schultheis, K. Fischer. Collection & Transport. Efficient collection and transport system must consider : Size of the waste collection area Economic structure Consumption habits Building area specifications

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WORKPACKAGE 4 Collection & Transport O. Tabasaran, D. Steinbach, A. Schultheis, K. Fischer

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Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • WORKPACKAGE 4

  • Collection & Transport

  • O. Tabasaran, D. Steinbach, A. Schultheis, K. Fischer


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Collection & Transport

  • Efficient collection and transport system must consider:

  • Size of the waste collection area

  • Economic structure

  • Consumption habits

  • Building area specifications

  • Demands of the users

  • Choice of a suitable collection system

40 –70% of the waste disposal costs


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Collection system

  • Collection method

  • Container systems

  • Waste vehicles

  • Staff

Diverse structures in the collection area often require several collection systems

Transport system

  • Direct regional transport

  • Transfer station

  • Transport out of the region

Related to the situation combination of different transport systems may be necessary


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Decisions to take

  • What to collect

  • Collection system

  • Transport system


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • What should be collected separately?

  • Waste fractions

  • Paper

  • Glass

  • Light fraction

  • Metals

  • Bio-waste

  • Green waste

  • WEEE

  • Hazardous waste

  • .

  • .

  • .

  • Important pre-condition for the decision:

  • Waste quantities

  • Waste composition

  • Development of waste

  • quantities during the last

  • decade

  • Decision influences:

  • Costs

  • Environmental aspects

  • National law

  • EC regulations (packaging,

  • landfill, WEEE directives)

  • Market aspects


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • How should the waste be collected?

Kerbside system

  • Bring system

  • Central collection points

  • Civic amenity sites


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Decision for bring or kerbside collection


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Collectable amounts according to the system

Central collection points:


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Civic amenity site:

  • The amounts collected highly depend on the location

  • central

  • easy to reach

  • clean


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Kerbside collection paper/ glass:

Paper potential 1992: 60kg/c*a

Glass potential 1992: 39 kg/c*a


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Kerbside collection bio-waste [kg/c*a]


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • What method should be used

Containers to be emptied:

Normally used for household waste and similar to household waste collection

One way bags:

Often used for textiles and light weight fraction

Collection not using bins/bags

Suitable for bulky waste collection

Containers to be changed:

Mostly used for industrial/commercial waste


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

What kind of containers are suitable

Decision criteria for container systems:

  • Economy (different container sizes, number of loaders, efficiency)

  • Physical strains of the workers

  • Hygiene

  • Building area aspects

  • Users concerns (fees, comfort, space)


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Kerbside collection

  • Dustbins

  • 35 l to 110 l

  • no wheels

  • high physical strains

  • need much time for

  • collection

  • Large refuse containers

  • 60 l to 5000 l

  • wheeled

  • easy to move (safety standard for workers)

  • standardized for automatic or hydraulic lifter systems

  • large containers to be lifted automatically by the

  • driver or by the help of loaders

Bring systems

Containers from about 800 to 4000 litres, normally emptied into trucks with special loading equipment


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Systems for separate collection

Integrated systems:

separated waste and residual waste are collected at the same time with different bins or two - chamber bins in a two - or multi - chamber waste truck

  • minimum truck traffic

  • high invest costs (trucks)

  • economically sound

  • collection

Alternating systems:

separated waste and residual waste are collected alternating

  • reduced truck traffic

  • no special trucks needed

  • reduced flexibility for

  • collection frequency

Additive systems:

separated waste is collected additional to the residual waste

  • high truck traffic

  • high collection costs

  • many fractions can be

  • collected separately

  • high collection flexibility


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Kind and number of containers needed

  • Decisions already taken:

  • what to collect

  • kerbside and/ or bring system

  • collection method

  • Additive, alternating or integrated

  • system

Decisions to take

  • to collect one or several fractions

  • in one bin

  • to use two- (multi-) chambered bins

  • to use several mono bins

  • obligatory or voluntary collection for

  • the different fractions

Container volume required


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • To calculate the required container volume needs:

  • Probable amount to be collected per capita and year

  • (bring/ kerbside)

  • Number of people connected (obligatory/ voluntary

  • collection)

  • Volume weights of the fractions to be collected per bin


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Volume weight of different fractions and containers in Stuttgart

Stuttgart container volume provided needed

Residual waste:42 litres/c*w25 litres/c*w

Bio-waste: 7 litres/c*w4.5 litres/c*w

Paper:17 litres/c*w14 litres/c*w


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Central collection points

Calculation of the volume needed per year


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Containers neededfor collection

  • Decisions to take:

  • collection frequency

  • container sizes

  • 1 container size but different collection intervals

  • different container sizes according to different building

  • areas (1 family houses to high rise buildings)


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Collection vehicles

  • Collection vehicles:

  • Chassis + driver cabin

  • Body with waste storage chamber and compaction aggregate

  • Lifter system

must be combined according to the specific requirements

  • Chassis: 2 or 3 axles chassis

  • collection area (inner-city, suburbs)

  • amount to be collected within one tour

  • kind of waste collected (loading capacity)


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Compactionprinciples:

Rotary drum

Packer body with pressing plates

  • very good crushing and

  • compaction of the waste

  • not suitable for waste that is

  • collected to be recycled

  • very good waste compaction

  • suitable for all kinds of waste


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Lifter systems

  • lifter pick-ups

  • comb

  • diamond

  • swivel-arm

  • lifter systems for 2 containers until 240 litres

  • lifters for two smaller and one large container

  • lifters for all container sizes

  • lifters for two-chamber containers and vehicles

2 container until 360 or

1 container of 1100 liters

From 80 - 5,000 litres

Two chamber container lifter


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Loader systems

Rear loader

Side loader

Front loader

The loader systems can be combined with the various chassis, compaction and lifter systems


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Side loader

  • particularly for suburb areas

  • safe and quick loading

  • right wheeled

  • driver watches the emptying

  • pressing during driving

  • driver is loader (1 worker only

  • needed)

  • containers can also be emptied

  • without leaving the driver cabin

  • reduced accident risks


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Front loader

  • especially for large containers

  • safe and quick loading

  • driver watches the emptying

  • pressing during driving

  • driver is loader (1 worker only

  • needed)

  • containers can also be emptied

  • without leaving the driver cabin

  • reduced accident risks

The “Fast Eater”


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Comparison between a rear and side loader

Both vehicles made the same tour emptying 80, 120 and 240 litres bins

Invest costs.

Rear loader: 260,000 DM

Side loader: 340,000 DM

Assurance, maintenance, diesel, the same for both

Costs per minute:

Rear loader: 1.02 DM/minute

Side loader: 1.17 DM/minute


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Result


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Comparison between a rear and front loader

Emptying of 5 m³ containers

Invest costs.

Rear loader: 260,000 DM

Front loader: 300,000 DM

Assurance, maintenance, diesel, the same for both

Emptying time:

Rear loader: 4.36 minutes

Front loader: 1.56 minutes

Costs per minute:

Rear loader: 1.02 DM/minute

Front loader: 1.09 DM/minute


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Result


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Vehicle body: 2 principle systems

Fixed body: Chassis and body are fixed

  • Demountable container system:

  • chassis and body can be separated

  • separation of collection and transportation

  • the full demountable container is

  • deposited at a transfer point, an empty

  • container is picked up

  • thus waste collection vehicles can return

  • immediately and continue on their

  • collection route


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Collection service

Full service

Loaders take the bins out of the properties for collection and bring the emptied bins back

Especially in inner-city areas and for large bins

Cost intensive as more loaders or more time are needed

No full service

Inhabitants take their bins to the street and bring the emptied bins back


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Stuttgart

  • Several valleys

  • Some hills

  • From 207-550 m

About 45% of the city require increased efforts for waste collection


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Area [km²]

Inhabitants

Inner-city

48

185,841

Suburbs

160

365,615

Total

208

551,456

Population


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Waste collection in Stuttgart

  • Responsible departments of Stuttgart authority:

  • Department of waste (1st step of going private)

  • Environmental department(sewage sludge, landfill planning)

  • Park and cemetery department(green waste composting)


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Regulations:

Packaging Ordinance (1991):

Packaging manufacturers and distributors must take back their packages for recycling

Companies from the packaging and consumer goods industry founded the DSD system

Financed by licensing the trademark “the green dot” to fillers, packers, importers

For each packaging the consumer pays a small amount


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Act for Promoting Closed Substance Cycle Waste Management and Ensuring Environmentally Compatible Waste Disposal

Waste,

must firstly be avoided especially by reducing its amount and noxiousness

must secondly

be subjected to substance recycling or

used to obtain energy


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Responsibilities of waste collection

What Stuttgart collects separately

Glass

Light fraction (packaging)

Paper

Bio-waste

Residual waste

1 firm

3 firms

Collected by the authority

Green waste

For DSD system

Collection association

of 6 firms

Textiles

WEEE

Hazardous waste

Charity organisations


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Kerbside

Paperevery 3 weeks obligatory

LWFevery 3 weeksobligatory

Residual wasteweekly or obligatory

every 2 weeks (biowaste)

Bio-wasteweeklyvoluntary

Green wastetwice a yearvoluntary

Bulky wastetwice a yearvoluntary

WEEEtwice a yearvoluntary

Textilesvery oftenvoluntary

Bring system

Glasscontainervoluntary

Hazardous wastespecial vehiclevoluntary

Textilescontainervoluntary


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Development of waste quantities


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Paper collection: obligatory

Collection system:until 1990 bring

since 1990 kerbside

Collection frequency:every 3 weeks

Service:full service

Amount collected separately:

1995:46,350 tons/a82 kg/c*a

2000:56,545 tons/a97 kg/c*a

Containers:

120 litres: 39,218

240 litres: 39,408

1100 litres: 14,962


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Staff: 1 driver/ 3 loaders for containers <360 litres

1 driver/ 2 loaders for containers >360 litres

17 drivers and 38 loaders daily

Containers emptied per loader*day:

containers <360 litres 218 containers/loader*d

containers >360 litres 94 containers/loader*d

Transport distance to the recycling plant: 7 km (3 times per day)

Daily km to drive per collection vehicle: 66 km

Tons collected per collection vehicle and day: 14 tons


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Costs for paper collection and transport:

Containers 41 DM/ton

Loaders:121 DM/ton

Vehicle: 33 DM/ton

Total:195 DM/ton

19.1 % of the paper collected is packaging paper

DSD pays the collection costs for the packaging paper


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Biowaste collection: voluntary

Collection system:kerbside

Collection frequency:weekly

Service:no full service

Amount collected separately:

1995: 590 tons/a(testing phase)

2000:14,975 tons/a102 kg/per inhabitant connected

connected people: 146,838

Containers:

80 litres: 9,290

120 litres: 11,170

240 litres: 2,528


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Staff: 1 driver/ 1 loader

11 drivers and 11 loaders daily

Containers emptied per loader*day:

containers <360 litres 250 containers/loader*d

Transport distance to composting plant: 40 km (demountable excel system)

Daily km to drive per collection vehicle: 72 km

Tons collected per collection vehicle*day: 9 tons

Costs for bio-waste collection and transport:

Containers: 19 DM/ton

Driver: 19 DM/ton

Loaders: 30 DM/ton

Vehicle: 19 DM/ton

Total: 87 DM/ton


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Light weight fraction: obligatory

Collection in yellow bags (90 l volume, transparent)

Collection frequency:every 3 weeks

Service:no full service

Responsibility is not with Stuttgart authority

 3 firms of the collection association collect in different city districts

Bags collected per vehicle/d:

2,687 bags/vehicle*d

(Average of 40 cities with the same collection system)

Amount collected separately:

1995:7,724 tons/a13.7 kg/c*a

2000:6,800 tons/a12.3 kg/c*a

Staff:1 driver 2 loaders


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Glass separately collected: voluntary

Collection system: bring

Responsibility is not with the

Stuttgart authority

1 firm of the collection association

collects in all city districts

Amount collected separately:

1995:14,816 tons/a26 kg/c*a

2000:15,901 tons/a27 kg/c*a

Container volume provided:

671 m³ green glass

661 m³ white glass

523 m³ brown glass

Container quantity:

1030 containers: total

282 containers: 2.6 m³

748 containers: 1.5 m³


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Green waste separately collected: voluntary

Collection system:kerbside

Collection frequency:twice a year (spring/autumn)

(private households):

Green waste total: 27,535 tons [47 kg/c*a]

From the city (parks, zoo, cemeteries): ca. 12,000 tons (1995)

From private households: 15,535 tons


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Hazardous waste sep. collected: voluntary

Collection system: bring

Collection frequency: 4-6 times/year

Schadstoffmobil: 155 tons/a

 0.3 kg/c*a

(batteries, waste paint, solvents…)

Costs for collection and transport:

Driver: 850 DM/ton

Chemist: 2,285 DM/ton

Vehicle: 1,422 DM/ton

Total: 5,295 DM/ton


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Textiles separately collected: voluntary

Textiles and shoes by charity organisations (Red Cross, Johanniter,….)

Bring systems and kerbside systems (minimum every month)

No collection quantities available


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Residual waste collection: obligatory

Collection system:kerbside

Collection frequency:once a week

(without bio-bin)

every two weeks

(with bio-bin)

Service:full service

Amount collected:

1995:192,056 tons/a340 kg/c*a

2000:131,289 tons/a 238 kg/c*a

Containers:

80 litres: 10,997

120 litres: 51,690

240 litres: 26,778

1100 litres: 9,555

Staff:

1 driver/ 3 loaders for containers <360 litres

1 driver/ 2 loaders for containers >360 litres

1 driver/ 2 loaders for mixed collection

34 drivers and 75 loaders daily


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Containers emptied per loader*day:

containers <360 litres 220 containers/loader*d

containers >360 litres 78 containers/loader*d

Mixed collection 165 containers/loader*d

Transport distance to the incineration plant: 10 km (3 times per day)

Daily km to drive per collection vehicle:98 km

Tons collected per collection vehicle and day:17 tons

Costs for residual waste collection and transport:

Containers: 15 DM/ton

Driver: 52 DM/ton

Loaders: 99 DM/ton

Vehicle: 34 DM/ton

Total:200 DM/ton


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Bulky waste collection: voluntary

Collection system:kerbside

Collection frequency:twice a year

  • 3 bulky waste fractions are collected

  • separately (year 2000):

  • Combustible bulky waste20,411 tons 37.0 kg/c*a

  • Electrical/ electronic equipment 2,595 tons 4.7 kg/c*a

  • Refrigerators/freezers 544 tons 1.0 kg/c*a

Transport distance to the incineration plant:10 km (3 times/day)

Daily km to drive per collection vehicle:57 km

Tons collected per collection vehicle and day:15 tons


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

Staff: 1 driver/ 3 loaders for combustible bulky waste

1 driver/ 3 loaders for electrical/ electronic equipment

1 driver/ 2 loaders for freezers

9 drivers and 28 loaders daily

Costs for bulky waste collection and transport

Refrigerators/freezers 525 DM/ton

Electrical/ electronic equipment 246 DM/ton

Combustible bulky waste

Driver 32 DM/ton

Loader 86 DM/ton

Vehicle 26 DM/ton

Total144 DM/ton


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

  • Collection vehicles

Daily use: 53 collection vehicles (paper, bio-waste, residual waste

+ 10 collection vehicles for bulky waste

In reserve: 22 collection vehicles


Workpackage 4 collection transport o tabasaran d steinbach a schultheis k fischer

waste

PHH

waste

TIBS

waste

OWP

City/

City/

City/

City/

City/

City/

others

others

others

others

others

others

Not in

Stuttgart

Not in

Stuttgart

imported

waste

others

R. Fehringer, 2001 - completed by M.Brumbach

design: Inge Hengl /awast-system-level1.dsf

environment

environment

environment

trade, industry,

environment

environment

trade, industry,

Level 1: total system

(ENV)

(ENV)

(ENV)

buseiness, service

(ENV)

(ENV)

buseiness, service

(TIBS)

(TIBS)

Responsibility: city of Stuttgart

Responsibility: others

resources

emissions

resources

resources

supplies

emissions

supplies

private house-

CT

CT

T

TW

TW

TW

T

hold (PHH)

Residual waste (?)

Fuel, oil, etc/

others

Exhaust gas, etc/

others

Part of

Fuel, oil, etc

??/others

??/others

Fuel, oil, etc

Exhaust gas, etc

Bulky waste (SCB)

Hazardous waste (?)

Values:

emissions

environment

Biowaste (SCS)

(ENV)

T

transport

Part of

Exhaust gas, etc

Paper and cardboard (SCS)

treated

of treated

Metal scrap (SCB)

waste

trade, industry,

waste (T)

(recycling)

Values:

business, service

products

(TIBS)

Glass (SCS)/Rhenus private firm

pretreated

Packaging (SCS)/DSD

waste

trade, industry,

business, service

(TIBS)

TBS - same fractions as PHH

collection

treatment

waste to

Industrial waste

& transport

of waste

Ashes, salt

treatment

of waste

Industrial waste,values/firms??

(TW)

(CT)

slag

residues

other waste

relevant pro-

cesses (OWP)

Green waste

composting,

incineration of sludge

Green waste and christmas trees (COO)

resources

environment

L

(ENV)

Money, material etc

Road waste (COR)

Sorting

of packaging,

Incineration

Sewage sludge (TSS)/ office for waste water

landfill

untreated

trade, industry,

supplies

business, service

(L)

waste

L

(TIBS)

??/others

emissions

environment

(ENV)

L

neighbouring

Exhaust gas,

leachate etc

region (NR)

Residual waste (TI)/neighbours

Residues, mineral waste/neighbours

exported

neighbouring

supplies

waste

region (NR)

other regions

trade, industry,

CT

Hazardous waste

business, service

Industrial waste

(TIBS)

biowaste

??

system boundary "AWAST"


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