Spherical refracting surfaces  -  Six cases
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Spherical refracting surfaces - Six cases. Sign Convention to be used in the optics equations: The object distance p is positive for a real object. It would be negative for a virtual object, but that is a rare situation.

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Spherical refracting surfaces - Six cases

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Spherical refracting surfaces - Six cases


  • Sign Convention to be used in the optics equations:

  • The object distance p is positive for a real object. It would be negative for a virtual object, but that is a rare situation.

  • The image distance i is positive for a real image and negative for a virtual image.

  • Radii of curvature get their sign based on whether the centers of curvature are on the “R-side” or “V-side”.

From posted “Practical Rules” on Lecture Materials page:


V-side

So

r < 0

R-side,

So

i > 0

V-side

R-side

So

r > 0

i > 0

Note: p > 0 since the object is real.


V-side

So

r < 0

i < 0

V-side

So

i < 0

R-side

R-side

So

r > 0


V-side

So

i < 0

R-side

So

r > 0

V-side

So

r < 0

i < 0

R-side


Converging Lens (f > 0)

Focal point

Diverging Lens (f < 0)


Converging Lens

f > 0

Focal point

f < 0

Diverging Lens


Converging Lens

f > 0

Focal point

f < 0

Diverging Lens


R-side

V-side

V-side

R-side

R-side

V-side

Locating the Image

(From posted “Practical Rules” on Lecture Materials page)


Magnifying glass

Typical “near point”

Angular magnification


Simple thin-lens microscope

Not to scale.

s = “tube length”

The eyepiece acts as a magnifying glass for the image from the objective lens. The final magnification M is the product of the lateral magnification m of the objective lens and the angular magnification m of the eyepiece.


Angular magnification

Refracting telescope

ey

Not to scale.

A distant object subtends an angle ob. The virtual image viewed through the telescope subtends ey.


Eyeglasses

myopic eye (shortsighted)

corrected with diverging lens

hyperopic eye (farsighted)

corrected with converging lens


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