Transfusion medicine case studies patient gj march 2010
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 29

Transfusion Medicine Case Studies Patient GJ March 2010 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 174 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Transfusion Medicine Case Studies Patient GJ March 2010. John N. McLennan, MT(ASCP) Midwest Region American Red Cross Omaha, NE.

Download Presentation

Transfusion Medicine Case Studies Patient GJ March 2010

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Transfusion medicine case studies patient gj march 2010

Transfusion Medicine Case StudiesPatient GJMarch 2010

John N. McLennan, MT(ASCP)

Midwest Region American Red Cross

Omaha, NE


Transfusion medicine case studies patient gj march 2010

Gertrude Jones presented to the emergency department complaining of shortness of breath and leg pain. She recently had a double mastectomy. Gertrude has a history of DVT’s in her left leg.

Current hemoglobin: 7.0 g/dL Current hematocrit: 20.8%

Gertrude’s transfusion history indicates that she is A Positive. She has received blood in the last 3 months, getting 8 units of packed red cells in the last 4 days. She has a history of anti-E.

Crossmatch indicates that 8 of 8 units that are E antigen negative are incompatible.

The sample was sent to the reference laboratory for further investigation.


Case gj

Case GJ

Front Type

Rh

Reverse Type

Interp.

Anti

-

A

Anti

-

B

Anti

-

D

A

cells

B Cells

1

A Positive

4+

0

4+

0

3+

IS

LISS/37

LISS/AHG

Blood

Rh

MNSs

P

Lewis

Kell

Duffy

Kidd

Lutheran

Group

System

w

a

b

a

b

a

b

a

b

D

C

E

c

e

C

M

N

S

s

P

Le

Le

K

k

Fy

Fy

Jk

Jk

Lu

Lu

1

R

R

+

+

0

0

+

0

+

0

0

+

+

0

+

+

+

+

+

+

0

0

+

0

0

0

ü

1

1

1

R

R

+

0

+

+

0

0

+

+

+

+

+

+

0

0

+

+

0

+

+

0

+

0

1+

3+

2

2

2

rr

0

0

0

+

+

0

0

+

+

0

0

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

1+

2+

3

0

1+

2+mf

Auto


Transfusion medicine case studies patient gj march 2010

Case GJ

With a positive auto-antibody in a recently transfused patient, a DAT and elution should be performed.

There is no specific order to perform testing. Since there were negative cells reactive at LISS/37 and LISS/AHG, testing with serum/plasma could be performed to determine the allo-antibody specificity. The elution could also be performed to determine what is coating the red blood cells.

REMEMBER, the patient has been recently transfused, so there is a mixture of patient cells and transfused cells present in this sample.


Transfusion medicine case studies patient gj march 2010

Case GJ

Patient GJ is suspected to be having a delayed transfusion reaction.

Often, if the antibody screen is initially negative, transfusion with the antigen positive unit will trigger an anamnestic response, causing the antibody to respond quite rapidly.

This allo-antibody titer slowly decreases (over time) after the initial immune response, sometimes becoming undetectable in the serum.


Transfusion medicine case studies patient gj march 2010

Case GJ

LISS/37

LISS/AHG

A panel was tested with the patient plasma to see if an antibody specificity could be determined.

Blood

Rh

MNSs

P

Lewis

Kell

Duffy

Kidd

Lutheran

Group

System

w

a

b

a

b

a

b

a

b

D

C

E

c

e

C

M

N

S

s

P

Le

Le

K

k

Fy

Fy

Jk

Jk

Lu

Lu

1

R

R

+

+

+

0

+

0

0

+

0

+

+

0

+

+

+

+

0

+

0

0

+

0

1+

1

z

1

R

R

+

+

0

0

+

+

+

0

+

+

+

+

0

0

+

+

0

0

+

0

+

0

0

ü

2

1

1

R

R

+

+

0

0

+

0

+

+

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

+

0

0

+

0

0

ü

3

1

1

R

R

+

0

+

+

0

0

+

0

+

0

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

0

+

0

+

1+

3+

4

2

2

R

R

+

0

+

+

0

0

+

+

0

+

0

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

1+

3+

5

2

2

rr

0

0

0

+

+

0

0

+

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

+

+

+

+

0

+

1+

3+

6

rr

0

0

0

+

+

0

0

+

+

+

+

0

+

0

+

+

0

+

+

0

+

1+

3+

7

rr

0

0

0

+

+

0

+

0

0

+

0

0

+

+

0

0

+

0

+

0

+

1+

3+

8


Transfusion medicine case studies patient gj march 2010

Case GJ

Additional cells were tested to complete the identification process

LISS/37

LISS/AHG

Blood

Rh

MNSs

P

Lewis

Kell

Duffy

Kidd

Lutheran

All common allo-antibodies have been ruled out except anti-E and anti-c. It appears that the patient has developed anti-c. Now testing must be performed with the eluate to determine what antibody (ies) are coating the red cells.

Group

System

w

a

b

a

b

a

b

a

b

D

C

E

c

e

C

M

N

S

s

P

Le

Le

K

k

Fy

Fy

Jk

Jk

Lu

Lu

1

R

R

+

+

0

0

+

+

0

+

0

+

+

+

0

0

+

+

0

0

+

0

+

0

0

ü

1

1

1

R

R

+

+

0

0

+

0

0

+

+

0

0

0

+

+

+

0

+

+

+

0

+

0

0

ü

2

1

1

rr

0

0

0

+

+

0

+

+

0

+

0

0

+

0

+

+

+

+

+

0

+

1+

3+

3

rr

0

0

0

+

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

+

+

+

0

0

+

1+

3+

4


Case gj1

Case GJ

Eluate/AHG

Last Wash/AHG

Blood

Rh

MNSs

P

Lewis

Kell

Duffy

Kidd

Lutheran

Group

Eluate testing is treated just like plasma/serum testing. All common allo-antibodies must be ruled in/out with the eluate. A panel was performed to identify the antibody that is present in the eluate.

System

w

a

b

a

b

a

b

a

b

D

C

E

c

e

C

M

N

S

s

P

Le

Le

K

k

Fy

Fy

Jk

Jk

Lu

Lu

1

R

R

+

+

0

0

+

0

+

0

0

+

+

0

+

+

+

+

+

+

0

0

+

0

0

ü

ü

1

1

1

R

R

+

0

+

+

0

0

+

+

+

+

+

+

0

0

+

+

0

+

+

0

+

2+

0

ü

2

2

2

rr

0

0

0

+

+

0

0

+

+

0

0

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

2+

0

ü

3


Transfusion medicine case studies patient gj march 2010

Case GJ

Case GJ

Eluate/AHG

Last Wash/AHG

Blood

Rh

MNSs

P

Lewis

Kell

Duffy

Kidd

Lutheran

Group

System

w

a

b

a

b

a

b

a

b

D

C

E

c

e

C

M

N

S

s

P

Le

Le

K

k

Fy

Fy

Jk

Jk

Lu

Lu

1

R

R

+

+

+

0

+

0

0

+

0

+

+

0

+

+

+

+

0

+

0

0

+

0

0

1

z

1

R

R

+

+

0

0

+

+

+

0

+

+

+

+

0

0

+

+

0

0

+

0

+

0

0

ü

2

1

1

R

R

+

+

0

0

+

0

+

+

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

+

0

0

+

0

0

ü

3

1

1

R

R

+

0

+

+

0

0

+

0

+

0

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

0

+

0

+

2+

0

4

2

2

R

R

+

0

+

+

0

0

+

+

0

+

0

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

2+

0

5

2

2

rr

0

0

0

+

+

0

0

+

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

+

+

+

+

0

+

2+

0

6

rr

0

0

0

+

+

0

0

+

+

+

+

0

+

0

+

+

0

+

+

0

+

2+

0

7

rr

0

0

0

+

+

0

+

0

0

+

0

0

+

+

0

0

+

0

+

0

+

2+

0

8

9


Transfusion medicine case studies patient gj march 2010

Case GJ

LISS/37

LISS/AHG

Blood

Rh

MNSs

P

Lewis

Kell

Duffy

Kidd

Lutheran

All common allo-antibodies have been ruled out except anti-c. It appears that the patient has developed anti-c.

If the patient had not been transfused so recently, a cell separation and complete phenotype would be performed. However, the patient received 8 units of PRBC’s in the past 4 days. There is a lot of circulating transfused cells in this patient’s sample, and cell separation and phenotyping would probably be unsuccessful.

Group

System

w

a

b

a

b

a

b

a

b

D

C

E

c

e

C

M

N

S

s

P

Le

Le

K

k

Fy

Fy

Jk

Jk

Lu

Lu

1

R

R

+

+

+

0

+

+

0

+

0

+

+

+

0

0

+

+

0

0

+

0

+

0

0

ü

1

z

1

R

R

+

+

0

0

+

0

0

+

+

0

0

0

+

+

+

0

+

+

+

0

+

0

0

ü

2

1

1

rr

0

0

0

+

+

0

+

+

0

+

0

0

+

0

+

+

+

+

+

0

+

1+

3+

3

rr

0

0

0

+

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

+

+

+

0

0

+

1+

3+

4

10


Transfusion medicine case studies patient gj march 2010

Case GJ

Conclusion:

  • Anti-E historical per hospital record

  • Anti-c PEG/AHG and Eluate

  • Positive IgG-DAT

  • Due to recent multiple transfusions, phenotype was not performed

  • If required, transfuse A Positive red cells that are negative for E and c.


Transfusion medicine case studies patient gj march 2010

Case GJ

Patient management of a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction include monitoring the patient and providing supportive care. Most frequently, a correction of the anemia is all that is required. This would be achieved by transfusing antigen negative blood.

When a transfusion reaction is suspected, the patient’s physician and and the transfusion service director should be notified. This would allow for identification and treatment of any unrecognized hemolysis.


Transfusion medicine case studies case pw march 2010

Transfusion Medicine Case StudiesCase PWMarch 2010

Presented by John N. McLennan, MT(ASCP)

Midwest Region American Red Cross

Omaha, NE


Transfusion medicine case studies patient gj march 2010

Pam Weeks is a patient at Large Hospital. She is a 2 year old African American female. She presented to the emergency department with a distended abdomen and severe abdominal discomfort.

She had a liver transplant 8 months ago. She has received multiple transfusions in the last few months, with the most recent being 1 unit of packed red blood cells 4 weeks ago.

Her current hemoglobin is 7.4 g/dL with a hematocrit of 23.3%.

Large laboratory sent the sample to the reference lab for antibody identification. She is historically O Positive with a history of a warm autoantibody, not demonstrable in LISS media.


Case pw

Case PW


Case pw1

Case PW

Due to the formation of an antibody and the recent transfusions, an elution was performed on PW’s red cells.

The eluate was broadly reactive with all cells tested, which is consistent with a warm-autoantibody.


Transfusion medicine case studies patient gj march 2010

Case PW

Warm auto reactivity is apparent in the serum and eluate with PEG enhancement. Confirmation can be performed by:

Testing the DAT negative autologous cells against the serum

Testing the eluate against the DAT negative autologous cells

If a patient has been recently transfused and autologous cells are not available, the term “consistent with a warm autoantibody” will be used. This term is used when absolute confirmation by the above methods cannot be performed.


Transfusion medicine case studies patient gj march 2010

Case PW

A cell separation was performed. To ensure that any AHG testing will not be affected by the positive DAT, a DAT was performed on the separated cells.

Since the cell separation had a positive DAT, EGA must be used to remove the IgG coating on the red cells

IgG

Cell Separated Cells

1+

EGA treated Cell Separation

0

ü

The autologous cells (reticulocytes) that were harvested and chemically rendered DAT negative, are used for patient phenotyping. These cells can also be tested against the plasma and eluate to confirm the presence of a warm autoantibody.


Transfusion medicine case studies patient gj march 2010

Case PW

All of the testing indicates that there is a warm auto-antibody present at PEG/AHG.

It is not necessary to proceed any further with testing at PEG. PEG enhancement commonly enhances warm auto-antibody reactivity.

Since we have negative reactivity with LISS enhancement, rule-out of the common allo-antibodies will be performed with LISS media.


Transfusion medicine case studies patient gj march 2010

Case PW

Because the patient had a negative antibody screen with LISS at AHG, a panel of cells was tested to insure all common allo-antibodies have been ruled out at LISS/AHG.

LISS/37

LISS/AHG

Blood

Rh

MNSs

P

Lewis

Kell

Duffy

Kidd

Lutheran

Group

System

w

a

b

a

b

a

b

a

b

D

C

E

c

e

C

M

N

S

s

P

Le

Le

K

k

Fy

Fy

Jk

Jk

Lu

Lu

1

R

R

+

+

0

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

2+

0

ü

1

1

1

R

R

+

+

0

0

+

0

0

+

0

+

0

0

+

0

+

+

+

0

+

0

+

2+

0

ü

2

1

1

R

R

+

0

+

+

0

0

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

+

+

0

+

+

0

+

2+

0

ü

3

2

2

R

R

+

0

+

+

0

0

+

+

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

+

0

0

+

2+

0

ü

4

2

2

r’r

0

+

0

+

+

0

+

0

+

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

0

+

2+

0

ü

5

r

”r

0

0

+

+

+

0

+

+

+

+

0

0

+

0

+

+

+

+

+

0

+

2+

0

ü

6

All common allo-antibodies have been excluded with LISS/AHG


Transfusion medicine case studies patient gj march 2010

Case PW

Now, the focus will be on testing for antibody identification at LISS/37.

Auto-control was negative at LISS/37, indicating the probable presence of an allo-antibody. Since the phenotype of the patient has been established, testing of 2 phenotypically similar reagent red cells will aid in antibody identification. (phenotype: C-, E-, S-, K-, Fya-, Fyb-, Jkb-)


Transfusion medicine case studies patient gj march 2010

Case PW

A panel of high incidence negative red cells was tested with the following results. (Testing only needs to be done at LISS/37)

LISS/37

Special Typing

Blood

Rh

MNSs

P

Lewis

Kell

Duffy

Kidd

Lutheran

Group

System

w

a

b

a

b

a

b

a

b

D

C

E

c

e

C

M

N

S

s

P

Le

Le

K

k

Fy

Fy

Jk

Jk

Lu

Lu

1

0

0

0

+

+

0

+

+

0

+

+

+

0

+

+

+

0

+

+

0

+

2+

Jo

a

-

1

+

+

0

+

+

0

+

0

+

+

0

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

2+

Hy

-

2

0

0

0

+

+

0

+

+

0

+

0

0

+

0

+

+

+

+

+

0

+

2+

Tj

a

-

3

+

+

0

0

+

0

+

0

+

+

0

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

Kp

b

-

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

+

0

0

+

0

0

+

0

+

+

0

+

0

0

+

2+

Rh Null

5


Transfusion medicine case studies patient gj march 2010

Case PW

Testing a Kpb negative cell was non-reactive at LISS/37. A second Kpb negative cell must be tested.

LISS/37

Special

Typing

Blood

Rh

MNSs

P

Lewis

Kell

Duffy

Kidd

Lutheran

Group

System

D

C

E

c

e

C

w

M

N

S

s

P

Le

a

Le

b

K

k

Fy

a

Fy

b

Jk

a

Jk

b

Lu

a

Lu

b

1

R

R

+

+

0

0

+

+

0

+

0

+

+

0

+

0

+

+

0

+

0

0

+

0

Kp

-

b

1

1

1

Because Kpb negative cells are not commonly found on reagent grade red cell panels, the use of DTT treated cells can be used to rule-out all other common allo-antibodies, EXCEPT anti-K.


Transfusion medicine case studies patient gj march 2010

Case PW

DTT Treated

LISS/37

Blood

Rh

MNSs

P

Lewis

Kell

Duffy

Kidd

Lutheran

Group

System

D

C

E

c

e

C

w

M

N

S

s

P

Le

a

Le

b

K

k

Fy

a

Fy

b

Jk

a

Jk

b

Lu

a

Lu

b

1

R

R

+

+

0

0

+

+

+

0

+

+

+

+

0

0

+

+

0

0

+

0

+

0

1

1

1

R

R

+

0

+

+

0

0

+

+

+

+

+

+

0

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

2

2

2

R

R

+

+

0

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

+

0

0

+

+

+

0

+

0

+

0

3

1

1

R

r

+

0

0

+

+

0

+

0

+

+

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

+

0

0

+

0

4

0

rr

0

0

0

+

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

+

+

+

0

0

+

0

5

R

R

+

0

+

+

0

0

0

+

0

+

+

+

0

0

+

+

0

+

0

0

+

0

6

2

2

R

R

+

0

0

+

+

0

0

+

0

0

+

0

0

0

+

0

0

+

0

0

+

0

7

1

1

rr

0

0

0

+

+

0

0

+

0

+

+

0

+

0

+

0

0

+

0

0

+

0

8


Transfusion medicine case studies patient gj march 2010

Case PW

Initial conclusion:

Warm auto-antibody at PEG/AHG with serum and eluate.

Anti-Kpb at LISS/37.

Honor anti-K

(unable to rule out anti-K at LISS/37 due to unavailability of cells)

The patient phenotype indicated patient PW was Kpb antigen negative, with testing being performed with unlicensed anti-sera. However, this phenotype is uncommon in African American individuals.


Transfusion medicine case studies patient gj march 2010

Case PW

Kpb

A high prevalence in all populations.

This chart indicates 100% of Blacks

are antigen positive for Kpb

The sample was submitted for molecular testing to determine if the anti-Kpb is allo or auto in nature.

Molecular typing indicated that the patient is Kpb antigen positive, confirming the autoantibody specificity. Since there is an auto-anti-Kpb, antigen negative units do NOT need to be transfused.


Consultation request form

Consultation Request Form


Consultation request form1

Consultation Request Form


Transfusion medicine case studies patient gj march 2010

References:

Roback, John D. (2008). AABB Technical Manual, 16th Edition. Maryland. American Association of Blood Banks.

Reid, Marion and Christine Lomas-Francis. The Blood Group Antigen. Boston: Academic Press, 1997.

Textbook of Blood Banking and Transfusion Medicine, Rudmann, et al, 2005, Chapter 15.


  • Login