Crude oil
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16/07/2014. Crude oil. L.O. I know what crude oil is and how it is made. I know how crude oil is separated industrially. Write the titles in your books then cut and stick the first 4 pictures into your books. How Oil and Gas are Made Cut and stick the first 4 pictures into your book

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Crude oil

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Crude oil


  • I know what crude oil is and how it is made.

  • I know how crude oil is separated industrially.

Write the titles in your books then cut and stick the first 4 pictures into your books

How Oil and Gas are Made

Cut and stick the first 4 pictures into your book

in the correct order and cut and match the

correct description to go with each picture.

How we get Oil and Gas

Repeat for the next 4 pictures.

How Oil and Gas are Made

When they died they sank to the bottom and were slowly covered by mud and sand.

Millions of years ago there were tiny sea creatures and plants living in the sea.

A. B.

C. D.

E. F.

G. H.

After millions of years and a lot of squeezing, the mud changed into rock and the dead creatures and plants into

oil and gas.

As more layers of mud fell on top they were buried deeper and squeezed.

How we get Oil and Gas

The oil and gas are held in tiny spaces in the rock. (Like water in a sponge).

Sometimes the layers of rock become folded. (like hills and valleys).

Sometimes the oil and gas get trapped in the top of a fold underneath the solid layer of rock. Oil and gas companies can drill through the solid rock to get to the oil and gas.

The oil and gas are light so they move upward through the rock until they reach a solid rock layer that they cannot get through.

Handout - Crude oil




Crude oil is a mixture of h__________.

Hydrocarbons contain only h_______ and c_______


M_______ is the smallest hydrocarbon. The size of the

hydrocarbon affects its p_______

Small chain hydrocarbon m_______ have low boiling

points and are pale, fl_______, non viscous liquids or


Long chain hydrocarbon molecules have high boiling

points and are d___, viscous liquids or waxy s_____.








Although we can get u______ substances from oil,

crude oil itself has no uses.

In order to make crude oil into useful substances we

first have to s_______ the mixture into molecules of

similar size. This is done in an oil r______.



The importance of oil

  • These hydrocarbons are vital to our way of life.

  • We use them as highly portable fuels for many forms of transport.

  • We also use them as raw materials from which a huge range of useful everyday substances are made.

What is crude oil?

  • Crude oil is a mixture of different sized hydrocarbons. The exact composition depends upon where the oil comes from but typically it contains a lot of big molecules.

Big molecules

Small molecules

Medium molecules

Fractional Distillation



Fractional Distillation

  • Crude oil is split into fractions containing similar sized molecules using fractional distillation.

  • The oil is heated until it vaporises.

  • It then passes up a tall tower that is hot at the bottom but cool at the top.

  • As the vapour passes up this tower the molecules cool and condense back to liquid.



Fractional Distillation

Fuel gas


Arrange the fractions in the right order next to the arrows. Use this information to complete the ‘cut and stick’ handout on industrial fractional distillation



Lub. Oil


The composition of fractions?

  • We already know that each petroleum fraction consist of hydrocarbon molecules falling within a particular size range.

  • The proportions of the different hydrocarbons present in oil can vary greatly across the world.

  • It is therefore not surprising that the exact nature of the fractions collected will vary both in amount and detailed composition.

  • Nonetheless most crude oil will give rise to some quantity of each type of fraction.

Using viscosity data for crude oil from different areas of the world, arrange the oils putting those with the smallest molecules first.






Uses of each fraction

Burned in the refinery to fuel the distillation process, sold as LPG, purified and sold as bottled camping gas

Fuel gas


/ gasoline

Fuel for cars and motorcycles, also used to make chemicals.


Used to make chemicals.

Paraffin /


Fuel for greenhouse heaters and jet engines, manufacture of chemicals.

Diesel fuel

Fuel for lorries, trains.

Fuel and



Fuel for the heating systems of large buildings, fuel for ships, lubricating oil.


Roofing, and road surfaces.

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