Crude oil
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16/07/2014. Crude oil. L.O. I know what crude oil is and how it is made. I know how crude oil is separated industrially. Write the titles in your books then cut and stick the first 4 pictures into your books. How Oil and Gas are Made Cut and stick the first 4 pictures into your book

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Crude oil

16/07/2014

Crude oil

L.O.

  • I know what crude oil is and how it is made.

  • I know how crude oil is separated industrially.


Write the titles in your books then cut and stick the first 4 pictures into your books

Write the titles in your books then cut and stick the first 4 pictures into your books

How Oil and Gas are Made

Cut and stick the first 4 pictures into your book

in the correct order and cut and match the

correct description to go with each picture.

How we get Oil and Gas

Repeat for the next 4 pictures.


How oil and gas are made

How Oil and Gas are Made

When they died they sank to the bottom and were slowly covered by mud and sand.

Millions of years ago there were tiny sea creatures and plants living in the sea.

A. B.

C. D.

E. F.

G. H.

After millions of years and a lot of squeezing, the mud changed into rock and the dead creatures and plants into

oil and gas.

As more layers of mud fell on top they were buried deeper and squeezed.

How we get Oil and Gas

The oil and gas are held in tiny spaces in the rock. (Like water in a sponge).

Sometimes the layers of rock become folded. (like hills and valleys).

Sometimes the oil and gas get trapped in the top of a fold underneath the solid layer of rock. Oil and gas companies can drill through the solid rock to get to the oil and gas.

The oil and gas are light so they move upward through the rock until they reach a solid rock layer that they cannot get through.


Handout crude oil

Handout - Crude oil

ydrocarbons

ydrogen

arbon

Crude oil is a mixture of h__________.

Hydrocarbons contain only h_______ and c_______

atoms.

M_______ is the smallest hydrocarbon. The size of the

hydrocarbon affects its p_______

Small chain hydrocarbon m_______ have low boiling

points and are pale, fl_______, non viscous liquids or

gases.

Long chain hydrocarbon molecules have high boiling

points and are d___, viscous liquids or waxy s_____.

ethane

roperties

olecules

ammable

ark

olids


Crude oil

seful

Although we can get u______ substances from oil,

crude oil itself has no uses.

In order to make crude oil into useful substances we

first have to s_______ the mixture into molecules of

similar size. This is done in an oil r______.

eparate

efinery


The importance of oil

The importance of oil

  • These hydrocarbons are vital to our way of life.

  • We use them as highly portable fuels for many forms of transport.

  • We also use them as raw materials from which a huge range of useful everyday substances are made.


What is crude oil

What is crude oil?

  • Crude oil is a mixture of different sized hydrocarbons. The exact composition depends upon where the oil comes from but typically it contains a lot of big molecules.

Big molecules

Small molecules

Medium molecules


Crude oil

Fractional Distillation


Fractional distillation

cool

hot

Fractional Distillation

  • Crude oil is split into fractions containing similar sized molecules using fractional distillation.

  • The oil is heated until it vaporises.

  • It then passes up a tall tower that is hot at the bottom but cool at the top.

  • As the vapour passes up this tower the molecules cool and condense back to liquid.


Fractional distillation1

cool

hot

Fractional Distillation

Fuel gas

Petroleum

Arrange the fractions in the right order next to the arrows. Use this information to complete the ‘cut and stick’ handout on industrial fractional distillation

Kerosene

Diesel

Lub. Oil

Bitumen


The composition of fractions

The composition of fractions?

  • We already know that each petroleum fraction consist of hydrocarbon molecules falling within a particular size range.

  • The proportions of the different hydrocarbons present in oil can vary greatly across the world.

  • It is therefore not surprising that the exact nature of the fractions collected will vary both in amount and detailed composition.

  • Nonetheless most crude oil will give rise to some quantity of each type of fraction.


Crude oil

Using viscosity data for crude oil from different areas of the world, arrange the oils putting those with the smallest molecules first.

5

2

3

4

1


Crude oil

Uses of each fraction

Burned in the refinery to fuel the distillation process, sold as LPG, purified and sold as bottled camping gas

Fuel gas

Petrol

/ gasoline

Fuel for cars and motorcycles, also used to make chemicals.

Naphtha

Used to make chemicals.

Paraffin /

Kerosene

Fuel for greenhouse heaters and jet engines, manufacture of chemicals.

Diesel fuel

Fuel for lorries, trains.

Fuel and

lubricating

oil

Fuel for the heating systems of large buildings, fuel for ships, lubricating oil.

Bitumen

Roofing, and road surfaces.


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