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Tekrarlayan ART Ba şarısızlıklarının Yönetimi. Dr. Ayd ı n Ar ı c ı Kadın Sağlığı Bölümü Anadolu Sağlık Merkezi Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences Yale University School of Medicine. Live-Birth Rate per patient started in cohort. Cycle Number

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Tekrarlayan art ba ar s zl klar n n y netimi

Tekrarlayan ART Başarısızlıklarının Yönetimi

Dr. Aydın Arıcı

Kadın Sağlığı Bölümü

Anadolu Sağlık Merkezi

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences

Yale University School of Medicine


Live birth rate per patient started in cohort
Live-Birth Rate per patient started in cohort

Cycle Number

No. of patients started = 750

Witsenburg et al. 2005


Assumed etiologies for repeated art failures
Assumed Etiologies for Repeated ART Failures

  • Defective embryonic development

    • Genetic abnormalities (male/female/gametes/embryos)

    • Zona hardening

    • Suboptimal culture conditions

  • Decreased endometrial receptivity

    • Uterine cavity abnormalities

    • Thin endometrium

    • Altered expression of adhesive molecules

    • Immunological factors

    • Thrombophilias

  • Multifactorial effectors

    • Endometriosis

    • Hydrosalpinges

    • Suboptimal ovarian stimulation


Embryo quality
Embryo quality

  • Very important

  • Can the quality of an embryo improved?

  • Presently we try to increase chances by transferring the best embryos (i.e., morphology, PGD)

  • Embryo quality is affected by:

    • Maternal age

    • Very poor semen

    • Endometriosis

    • PCOS (insulin resistance)

    • Hyperstimulation?


Live Births per transfer using a woman’s own or donor eggs

2002 Assisted Reproductive Technology Success Rates: National Summary and Fertility Clinic Report. CDC


The role of genetics in repeated implantation failure
The Role of Genetics in Repeated Implantation Failure

  • Embryonic chromosomal anomalies

    • Most common etiology of age-related pregnancy failure

  • Euploidic but with lethal gene mutations

    • Difficult to diagnose but probably common in “idiopathic” recurrent implantation failures

  • Parental genetic structural abnormalities

    • Balanced translocations, female:male ratio 3:1; but overall rare (3%)


Suggested treatments for repeated art failures
Suggested Treatments for Repeated ART Failures

  • Treatment of the embryos

    • Preimplantation genetic screening

    • Assisted hatching

    • Co-culture

    • Blastocyst transfer

    • Improving ET technique

  • Improving endometrial receptivity

    • Hysteroscopic correction of cavity pathology

    • Myomectomy

    • Treatment of thin endometrium

    • Endometrial stimulation (biopsy)

    • Immunotherapy (IVIg, steroids, aspirin and heparin)

  • Multifactorial treatment options

    • Treating endometriosis

    • Salpingectomy in case of hydrosalpinges

    • Tailoring the stimulation protocols

    • Psychological assistance


Patients with repeated IVF failure

# Failed

implantation

cycles Age PGD Controls

Study 1: 3 32 15% 8% (N.S.)

Study 2: 3 30 no controls

Study 3: 2 38 14% 12% (N.S.)

Study 4: 3 36 20% 24% (N.S.)

Study 5: 2 n.a. 20% 0% (N.S.)

1: Gianaroli et al. 1999, 2: Kahraman et al. 2000, 3: Munné et al., RBO 2003, 4: Pehlivan et al. 2003, 5: Werlin et al. 2003


Which patients with recurrent implantation failure may benefit from pgd for aneuploidy screening
Which patients with recurrent implantation failure may benefit from PGD for aneuploidy screening?

Patients with recurrent IVF failure are defined as younger than 37 years and who have had at least 3 consecutive unsuccessful IVF/ICSI cycles with good-quality embryos.

  • To have a 90% probability of having an embryo transfer after PGD-AS, the patient should have at least 10 mature oocytes, 8 fertilized oocytes and 6 embryos for biopsy.

  • This study suggests that some patients with recurrent IVF failure may benefit from PGD-AS (but no controls).

Platteau et al. 2006


Growth hormone
Growth Hormone benefit from PGD for aneuploidy screening?

In a systematic review of adjuvant GH treatment on IVF outcomes, in women without a history of poor response, there was no evidence to support the use of GH (Harper K, 2003).

There was, however, a small but significant improvement in pregnancy rates in poor responders, although cost is a limiting factor (Harper K, 2003).

Tesarik et al. evaluated adjuvant GH in women >40-year-old undergoing IVF. Women co-treated with GH had more pregnancy (26 vs 6%) and delivery rates (22 vs 4%).


Growth Hormone benefit from PGD for aneuploidy screening?


M benefit from PGD for aneuploidy screening?etformin treatment increased the number of oocytes in insulin-resistant women with PCOS,(Fedorcsák, 2003). This finding, however, was not supported in otherRCT’s

Kjotrod, 2004;

Duration of FSH stimulation→

The number of oocytes retrieved→

Fertilization rates →

Embryo quality →

Pregnancy and live birth rates →

Onalan, 2005;

Total FSH→

Fertilization rate, →

Oocytes retrieved and placebo→

Pregnancy or miscarriage rates →

Insulin Sensitizers


Insulin sensitizers
Insulin Sensitizers benefit from PGD for aneuploidy screening?

A 28-day course of metformin during the IVF cycle improved pregnancy outcome and reduced the risk of OHSS. Pregnancy rate per ET was 44.4% vs 19% and live birth rate per ET was 37.8% vs 14.3%(Tang, 2006).

Meta-analysis demonstrated that metformin use in ART does not improve pregnancy (OR=3.46; CI=0.98-12.2) or live birth rates (Costello, 2006).


DHEA benefit from PGD for aneuploidy screening?

DHEA Control

Higher # oocytes 4.4 vs 3.4

Better fertilization rates 3.0 vs 1.4

Cumulative embryo score 16.1 vs 8.4

Lower cancellation rate 4% vs 32%

Transferred embryos 2.4 vs 1.4

Barad & Gleicher. Hum Reprod 2006


Suggested treatments for repeated art failures1
Suggested Treatments for Repeated ART Failures benefit from PGD for aneuploidy screening?

  • Treatment of the embryos

    • Preimplantation genetic screening

    • Assisted hatching

    • Co-culture

    • Blastocyst transfer

    • Improving ET technique

  • Improving endometrial receptivity

    • Hysteroscopic correction of cavity pathology

    • Myomectomy

    • Treatment of thin endometrium

    • Endometrial stimulation (biopsy)

    • Immunotherapy (IVIg, steroids, aspirin and heparin)

  • Multifactorial treatment options

    • Treating endometriosis

    • Salpingectomy in case of hydrosalpinges

    • Tailoring the stimulation protocols

    • Psychological assistance


Negative impact of coh on e ndometri um
Negative Impact benefit from PGD for aneuploidy screening? of COH on Endometrium

  • Pro

    • deZiegler et al. Fertil Steril 93, 98, 04

    • Basir et al. Hum Reprod, 01

    • Kolibianakis et al., 04

  • Con

    - Levi et al., Fertil Steril, 01

EMB on 7 days after hCG

COH

N=28

Normal menstrual cycle

N=12

  • glandular-stromal dyssynchrony

  • delayed glandular development & highly edematous stroma

  • in phase glandular development

  • lowest amount of edema

Basir et al. 01


Endometrial receptivity m arkers
Endometrial benefit from PGD for aneuploidy screening?ReceptivityMarkers


Subtle endometrial pathologies affect fertility
Subtle endometrial pathologies affect fertility benefit from PGD for aneuploidy screening?

IVF candidate with a normal HSG

Normal hysteroscopy

Abnormal hysteroscopy

37.5% pregnant

8.3% pregnant

Shamma et al. Fertil Steril 1992


Location of fibroids affects success of art cycles
Location of Fibroids Affects Success of ART Cycles benefit from PGD for aneuploidy screening?

Eldar-Geva et al., Fertil Steril 1998


Adenomyosis
Adenomyosis benefit from PGD for aneuploidy screening?

  • Until recently, there was no accurate preoperative diagnostic methods.

  • Therefore, the relationship of adenomyosis to infertility has not been possible to assess.

  • Recently, a clear relationship between adenomyosis and infertility was described in the baboon. (Barrier et al. Fertil Steril 2004)


Adenomyosis imaging
Adenomyosis: Imaging benefit from PGD for aneuploidy screening?

HSG

Ultrasound

MRI


Adenomyosis imaging1
Adenomyosis: Imaging benefit from PGD for aneuploidy screening?

  • HSG has 25% positive predictive value

  • Ultrasound has 71% positive predictive value

  • MRI has 95-100% positive predictive value

Reinhold et al. Hum Reprod Update 1998


ADENOMYOSIS benefit from PGD for aneuploidy screening?

IVF PREGNANCY RATES

P<0.01

P<0.01

ASRM 2005


Ivf in endometriosis vs tubal infertility
IVF in endometriosis vs. tubal infertility benefit from PGD for aneuploidy screening?

Barnhart et al, Fertil Steril 2002


Gnrh agonist vs no agonist before ivf clinical pregnancy rate per woman
GnRH agonist vs. no agonist before IVF benefit from PGD for aneuploidy screening?(Clinical pregnancy rate per woman)

Sallam, Garcia-Velasco, Dias, and Arici, Cochrane Database 2006


Hydrosalpinx and rif
Hydrosalpinx and RIF benefit from PGD for aneuploidy screening?


Commonly ordered immunological tests
Commonly ordered immunological tests benefit from PGD for aneuploidy screening?

  • Antiphospholipid antibodies

    • Anticardiolipin

    • antiphosphatidyl serine

    • antiphosphatidyl ethanolamine

    • antiphosphatidyl choline

    • antiphosphatidyl glycerol

    • antiphosphatidyl inositol

    • antiphosphatidic acid

  • Lupus anticoagulant

  • Antisperm antibodies

  • Antithyroid antibodies

  • Antinuclear antibodies

  • Anti-smooth muscle antibodies

  • Natural killer cells

  • Embryotoxic assay


A ntiphospholipid a ntibodies apa
A benefit from PGD for aneuploidy screening?ntiphospholipid Antibodies (APA)

  • There is evidence that women with APA syndrome do not have decreased conception but experience pregnancy loss after 10 weeks of gestation.

    Rai et al . Hum Reprod. 1995; Oshiro et al. Obstet Gynecol. 1996; Simpson et al. FertilSteril. 1998

  • Retrospective cohort study of 491 patients with a history of adverse pregnancy outcomes:

    • Thrombophilia was protective of recurrent losses at <10 weeks with OR of 0.55 (95% CI: 0.33-0.92).

    • Thrombophilia was associated risk of recurrent losses >10 weeks with OR of 1.76 (1.05-2.94).

      Roque et al., Thromb Haemost. 2004


Infertility apa
Infertility & APA benefit from PGD for aneuploidy screening?

  • There are no large, controlled studies that establish the antiphospholipid antibodies as a cause of infertility

  • The use of antiphospholipid antibody testing in the fertility practice can not be supported by current data

  • Presence of antiphospholipid antibodies does not adversely affect the IVF cycle outcome. No testing or treatment are indicated. ASRM Report-1999


Use of ivig for implantation failure
Use of IVIg for Implantation Failure benefit from PGD for aneuploidy screening?

A randomized, placebo controlled trial


Conclusions
Conclusions benefit from PGD for aneuploidy screening?

  • While there exists strong motivation to find answers to explain repeated implantation failure, this impulse should be resisted if it leads to the practice of medicine that is not evidence-based

  • The benefit of PGD has not been shown to improve the outcome in repeated implantation failure (except for >40 years old or for balanced translocation)

  • Re-evaluation and treatment of pelvic pathologies is crucial:

    • Myomas, adenomyosis, endometriosis, polyps, Asherman, hydrosalpinx

  • Less aggressive COH (natural cycle?) ART may be beneficial

  • Certain patient subpopulations may benefit from additional treatments, such as GH for poor responders or metformin for some PCOS patients or longer GnRH agonist for endometriosis.

  • Immune testing and unproven treatments in repeated implantation failure is not recommended


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