Talk About Whelping

Talk About Whelping PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Puppy Support. Puppy ResuscitationPuppy Supportive CareWarming the EnvironmentHealthy PuppiesPuppies in TroubleCare of Weak PuppiesBottle FeedingGavage FeedingImportance of Weighing Puppies. Pre-Whelping Management . Before BreedingThings to considerIs this the bitch`s first litter?If

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Talk About Whelping

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1. Talk About Whelping Pre-whelping Management Normal Whelping Abnormal Whelping Whelping Interventions Emergency Situations Elective vs. Emergency C-Section C-Section Facts Successful Whelping Post-Whelping Care of Bitch

2. Puppy Support Puppy Resuscitation Puppy Supportive Care Warming the Environment Healthy Puppies Puppies in Trouble Care of Weak Puppies Bottle Feeding Gavage Feeding Importance of Weighing Puppies

3. Pre-Whelping Management Before Breeding Things to consider Is this the bitch`s first litter? If not, when was her last breeding? Was it normal? If not, why? How old is the bitch? What is her general physical condition?

4. When Breeding Ovulation Timing Different methods Progesterone Vaginal slides/smears LH surge testing Determine Whelping Date

5. Before Whelping Determining Pregnancy Relaxin, Palpation, Ultrasound, X-ray Determining Number of Puppies When and how to X-ray Risk Assessment Increased Risk: Older Bitch Back-to-Back Litters Singleton Puppy Large (9+) Litter Previous maternal-caused C-section (primary inertia, small pelvis) Previous suspicious or bad whelping (malpresentation, secondary inertia) Previous whelping with high puppy mortality

6. Normal Whelping Maintaining a Normal Pregnancy: Monitor bitch`s weight gain Provide healthy diet Provide access to as much exercise as bitch wishes Limit exposure to other dogs, especially those going to shows or performance events

7. Provide Safe, Quiet Whelping Area: Away from other dogs Quiet and draft free Easy to heat and humidify Easy to keep clean

8. Determining Labor Pre-first stage: Take rectal temperature on regular basis Watch for loss of appetite Lots of sleeping alternating with periods of restlessness First Stage Labor: Panting Shivering Continued restlessness Nesting behavior Loss of mucus (clear or yellowish=) Second Stage Labor: Intermittent abdominal contractions Hard, pushing contractions Breaking of water sac (puppies have 2 sacs) Delivery of puppies

9. Normal Labor & Delivery Temperature drop followed by delivery of first puppy within 24 hours All puppies delivered with placentas No longer than 3-4 hours rest between delivery of each puppy All fluids passed are normal color, consistency and smell Bitch rests after delivery is complete

10. Abnormal Whelping Signs of Trouble Reached approximate due date without temperature drop or signs of labor Needs evaluation by vet May require progestrone test to determine completion of gestation 24 hours since temperature drop without signs of 2nd stage labor Prolonged 2nd stage labor without delivery of 1st puppy Blackish or green discharge before delivery of 1st puppy Long periods of intermittent hard contractions Bitch appears to have finished whelping when you know there are more puppies.

11. Whelping Interventions Things to help a whelping along: Fetal monitoring: Whelp-wise monitors start of labor, length & strength of contractions, fetal heart rates Assisted delivery Pull by back of skull or lower mandible for face-first presentation Pull by legs above hocks or skin on back for feet-first presentation Remember to pull out, then down Massage abdomen to move puppies toward birth canal

12. Feathering rubbing along inside of vaginal tract to induce contractions Use of Oxytocin Only when contractions have stopped NO obstruction (if you can not determine, do not use) Promotes placental separation

13. Use of Calcium Only to strengthen contractions Give orally or Sub-Q by injection Safer, does not promote placental seperation

14. Other Support Oral support Ice cubes or water Vanilla vogurt-ice cream Nutra-cal or high-energy paste or liquid Avoid solid food until delivery is complete Moral support Keep environment quiet and calm Avoid distractions, keep strangers to a minimum Walk her on lead to keep her awake and let her eliminate between puppies Talk to her in a soothing manner

15. Emergency Situations


17. Elective vs. Emergency Section Reasons for Elective C-Section The bitch has a history of uterine inertia, complicated delivereies, or cesarean section The bitch has a malformation of the birth canal A breed or family history of oversized puppies X-rays show one or more oversized puppies X-rays show a large litter or single puppy litter

18. Reasons for Emergency Section Uterine inertia unresponsive to oxytocin or calcium One or more pups oversize in relation to the dam`s pelvic width Obstruction of the birth canal (soft tissue or bony obstructions) Puppy malpresentation Uterine torsion or rupture Depressed fetal heart rates (below 150 bpm)

19. Advantages of Elective vs. Emergency C-section Clinic is better staffed during working hours Bitch is not stressed and will recover from surgery more quickly Puppies are not stressed and will not require aggressive resuscitation Cost

20. C-section Facts Normal sequence of events: Blood panel is taken (optional) IV line is started Bitch is masked down with oxygen Anesthesia is administered by mask or injection Bitch is intubated (down throat) and monitoring starts External prep, including shaving, local anesthesia and draping Abdomen is incised Uterus is removed from body Uterus is incised and puppies are removed with placentas (puppies are resuscitated separately) Injection of oxytocin is given directly into uterus to shrink it Layers of muscle and skin are stitched up Bitch is taken off anesthesia and may be given pain meds Bitch recovers in heated environment Puppies are given to bitch to nurse

21. Post-Surgical Care May uses antibiotics or pain management May give small injectins of oxytocin to encourage milk production/milk let-down There will be dishcarge Keep incision clean and dry Monitor temperature and watch for signs of infection Feed bland foods/liquids for 1st 24 hours Encourage water consumption

22. Successful Whelping Safe delivery of live puppies Bitch is healthy and can care for her litter Bitch is able to deliver more litters (if desired)

23. Post-Whelping Support of Bitch Check temperature once day Feed as much as she will eat in small meals several times a day Monitor water consumption and encourage her to drink Water consumption is more important than eating in the first few days for production of milk Encourage her to leave her box to eliminate First few days you might have to force her to leave her babies Good mothering is the best sign that she feels well and is recovering normally

24. Puppy Resuscitation Removal of mucus from respiratory tract Bulb syringe Suck mucus by mouth flinging/swinging puppies Vigorous rubbing Pinching/shaking of scruff You want to hear them cry/scream Keep head lower than rear Heat slowly Start with hair dryer on lowest setting Follow with heating pad Last resort Pin into front of face Drop onto flat surface Put in bowl of hot water

25. Puppy Supportive Care Clamp cord, dry with iodine/povidine Remove puppies from bitch while she is whelping other puppies Keep on heating pad, low heat/covered Puppies with breathing compromise kept warm & quiet until resolved Gasping/Gurgling puppies Keep head lowered, elevate butt

26. Warming the Environment Heat environment to body temperature (95-98 F)for days 1-7 Heating pad in box Heating lamp in corner Space heater in whelping area 35-55% humidity in area Days 7-14, 80-85 F Days 14-21, 75-80 F Day 21, normal room temperature Provide area for bitch to cool herself

27. Health Puppies Feel heavy when picked up Maintain firm muscle tone (not limp) Squirm and twitch every 10-15 seconds (activated sleep) Sleep in loose piles and shift position often Lay with limbs stretched and head extended

28. Puppies in Trouble Lay in one position without moving Are limp when picked up Will not attempt to right themselves when head is lowered Will either lay perfectly still with head tucked, or continue to try to position themselves under other puppies Will often fuss and cry Will not have normal reflexes

29. Care of Weak Puppies Fluid support 60-90 mL of fluid per 300 G daily Either lactated ringers, dextrose 5% or formula Make sure puppy is warm test inside mouth or by thermometer Fluid under skin warmed to body temperature 10-20 mL every 3 hours 50% dextrose rubbed inside mouth Liver juice or Puppy Stat liquid Tube formula or fluid into stomach every 2-3 hours Help with elmination NEVER FEED A COLD PUPPY BY MOUTH

30. Bottle Feeding Use Volu-feeder with preemie nipple to begin Goats milk or formula Put on bottle as soon as possible Use 50% dextrose to give energy boost before starting Digestion begins in mouth Enzymes in mouth that aid digestion Peristalsys starts with sucking Use Baby bottles with regular nipples later

31. Gavage Feeding Start with 8-10 French flexible silicon tube If puppy is over 300 Grams, use 12-14 French Measure from mouth to end of last rib Mark tube with permanent marker or tape Use 20-30 mL syringe with proper amount of pre-warmed fluid or formula Insert tube slowly into mouth and continue to the mark Check to make sure puppy is breathing normally Slowly depress plunger to inject food into stomach Pinch tube when removing to avoid fluid going into lungs Gently tap puppy on sides to encourage release of any air IT IS STRONGLY SUGGESTED WHEN GAVAGE FEEDING TO ADMINISTER ANTIBIOTICS TO AVOID ASPIRATION INFECTIONS.

32. WEIGH, WEIGH, WEIGH!!! Best indication of each puppy`s growth and progress is a consistent daily weight gain Weigh newborns (1st week) twice daily If they lose weight or do not gain in 2 consecutive weighings, consider supplemental feeding Weigh older puppies (2nd week and beyond) once a day Weigh the puppies the same time each day Record weights on puppy chart Daily weighing can discontinue when pan feedings begin

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