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Properties and behavior of H 2 0 1: The specifics. Lecture goal: To identify and describe the properties of water that are most important to understanding broader patterns of habitat structure and ecology in freshwater systems. Molecular Structure Density Temperature Oxygen Light.

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Properties and behavior of H 2 0 1: The specifics

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Properties and behavior of h 2 0 1 the specifics

Properties and behavior of H20 1: The specifics

  • Lecture goal:

    • To identify and describe the properties of water that are most important to understanding broader patterns of habitat structure and ecology in freshwater systems.


Properties and behavior of h 2 0 1 the specifics1

  • Molecular Structure

  • Density

  • Temperature

  • Oxygen

  • Light

Properties and behavior of H20 1: The specifics


The specifics

  • Molecular Structure

  • Density

  • Temperature

  • Oxygen

  • Light

The Specifics


Properties and behavior of h 2 0 1 the specifics

Structure of H2O

  • Polarity

  • Solvent properties


Surface tension

Surface Tension


Surface tension1

Surface Tension


The specifics1

  • Molecular Structure

  • Density

  • Temperature

  • Oxygen

  • Light

The Specifics


Temperature and water density

Temperature and Water Density


Anchor ice

Anchor Ice


Depth and water density

  • Density increases with depth.

  • Influenced by atmospheric pressure and other factors.

Depth and Water Density


Salinity and water density

Density (g / ml)

  • Freezing point of sea water (35 g/L) = -2ºC

  • Max density of sea water = -2ºC

  • Salinity of “Freshwater” ranges from 0.01 – 1.0 g/L

  • Saline lake  60 g/L

Salinity and Water Density


The specifics2

  • Molecular Structure

  • Density

  • Temperature

  • Oxygen

  • Light

The Specifics


Temperature and water density1

Temperature and Water Density


Specific heat of water

Specific Heat of Water

  • Specific heat: amount of heat in calories required to raise a unit (i.e., a gram) of the substance by 1C.

  • Specific heat of water = 1

  • Latent heat of fusion = 80

  • Latent heat of vaporization = 540


Measuring water temperature

Measuring Water Temperature

  • Standard / immediate temperature

  • Seasonal max, min, mean

  • Degree days


The specifics3

  • Molecular Structure

  • Density

  • Temperature

  • Oxygen

  • Light

The Specifics


How oxygen gets into water

How oxygen gets into water


How oxygen gets into water or not

How oxygen gets into water…or not


Pressure and o 2 solubility

Pressure and O2 Solubility


Temperature and o 2 solubility

Temperature and O2 Solubility

Oxygen Solubility (mg / L)


Salinity and o 2 solubility

Salinity and O2 Solubility


Oxygen terminology

  • Saturation or Equilibrium Concentration

    • Amount of DO that can be held by water in equilibrium with the atmosphere at a particular temperature, pressure, and salinity.

  • Supersaturation

  • Anoxia

  • Hypoxia

Oxygen Terminology


The specifics4

  • Molecular Structure

  • Density

  • Temperature

  • Oxygen

  • Light

The Specifics


Why is light important in aquatic systems

  • Light is energy, capable of work and being transformed from one form to another.

  • Radiant energy of light transformed to potential energy by biochemical reactions (e.g., photosynthesis).

  • Light provides the majority of energy input to aquatic systems – but getting light INTO aquatic systems is tough.

Why is light important in aquatic systems?


Properties and behavior of h 2 0 1 the specifics

Wavelength

Frequency

More Blue

More Red


How do plants receive light energy

How do plants receive light energy?

  • Quanta or photons at specific frequencies


Controls on light input season and latitude

Controls on light input: season and latitude


Properties and behavior of h 2 0 1 the specifics

Controls on light input: direct solar radiation


Other controls on direct solar radiation

Other controls on direct solar radiation

  • Time of day

  • Altitude

  • Meteorological conditions

  • Topography


Properties and behavior of h 2 0 1 the specifics

Controls on light input: indirect solar radiation


Controls on indirect solar radiation

Controls on indirect solar radiation

  • Scattering through atmosphere

  • Solar height


Properties and behavior of h 2 0 1 the specifics

Controls on light input: reflectivity


Controls on reflectivity

Controls on reflectivity

  • Angle of incidence

  • Surrounding topography

  • Surface conditions of water


Albedo

Albedo

  • Ratio of reflected to incident irradiance

  • Increases with reflection at surface and scattering within the lake.


Albedo1

Albedo


Properties and behavior of h 2 0 1 the specifics

Light scattering within lakes


Effect of salinity on density and o 2 solubility

Density (g / ml)

Anthropogenic Salinization

Effect of Salinity on Density and O2 Solubility


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