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Properties and behavior of H 2 0 1: The specifics. Lecture goal: To identify and describe the properties of water that are most important to understanding broader patterns of habitat structure and ecology in freshwater systems. Molecular Structure Density Temperature Oxygen Light.

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Properties and behavior of h 2 0 1 the specifics

Properties and behavior of H20 1: The specifics

  • Lecture goal:

    • To identify and describe the properties of water that are most important to understanding broader patterns of habitat structure and ecology in freshwater systems.


Properties and behavior of h 2 0 1 the specifics1

Properties and behavior of H20 1: The specifics


The specifics

The Specifics


Structure of H2O

  • Polarity

  • Solvent properties




The specifics1

The Specifics




Depth and water density

Depth and Water Density


Salinity and water density

Density (g / ml)

  • Freezing point of sea water (35 g/L) = -2ºC

  • Max density of sea water = -2ºC

  • Salinity of “Freshwater” ranges from 0.01 – 1.0 g/L

  • Saline lake  60 g/L

Salinity and Water Density


The specifics2

The Specifics



Specific heat of water

Specific Heat of Water

  • Specific heat: amount of heat in calories required to raise a unit (i.e., a gram) of the substance by 1C.

  • Specific heat of water = 1

  • Latent heat of fusion = 80

  • Latent heat of vaporization = 540


Measuring water temperature

Measuring Water Temperature

  • Standard / immediate temperature

  • Seasonal max, min, mean

  • Degree days


The specifics3

The Specifics




Pressure and o 2 solubility

Pressure and O2 Solubility


Temperature and o 2 solubility

Temperature and O2 Solubility

Oxygen Solubility (mg / L)


Salinity and o 2 solubility

Salinity and O2 Solubility


Oxygen terminology

Oxygen Terminology


The specifics4

The Specifics


Why is light important in aquatic systems

  • Light is energy, capable of work and being transformed from one form to another.

  • Radiant energy of light transformed to potential energy by biochemical reactions (e.g., photosynthesis).

  • Light provides the majority of energy input to aquatic systems – but getting light INTO aquatic systems is tough.

Why is light important in aquatic systems?


Wavelength one form to another.

Frequency

More Blue

More Red


How do plants receive light energy

How do plants receive light energy? one form to another.

  • Quanta or photons at specific frequencies




Other controls on direct solar radiation

Other controls on direct solar radiation one form to another.

  • Time of day

  • Altitude

  • Meteorological conditions

  • Topography



Controls on indirect solar radiation

Controls on indirect solar radiation one form to another.

  • Scattering through atmosphere

  • Solar height



Controls on reflectivity

Controls on reflectivity one form to another.

  • Angle of incidence

  • Surrounding topography

  • Surface conditions of water


Albedo

Albedo one form to another.

  • Ratio of reflected to incident irradiance

  • Increases with reflection at surface and scattering within the lake.


Albedo1

Albedo one form to another.


Light scattering within lakes one form to another.


Effect of salinity on density and o 2 solubility

Density (g / ml) one form to another.

Anthropogenic Salinization

Effect of Salinity on Density and O2 Solubility


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