Water pollution
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Water Pollution. Types of Pollutants. Microorganisms Cryptosporidium Giardia Fecal coliform bacteria. Types of Pollutants. Disinfectants Chlorine Bromate Chlorite Inorganic chemicals Arsenic, cadmium, lead mercury. Types of Pollutants. Organic chemicals Benzene Dioxin

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Types of pollutants
Types of Pollutants

Microorganisms

  • Cryptosporidium

  • Giardia

  • Fecal coliform bacteria


Types of pollutants1
Types of Pollutants

Disinfectants

  • Chlorine

  • Bromate

  • Chlorite

    Inorganic chemicals

  • Arsenic, cadmium, lead mercury


Types of pollutants2
Types of Pollutants

Organic chemicals

  • Benzene

  • Dioxin

  • Vinyl chloride

    Radionuclides

  • Uranium and radium


Sources of pollutants
Sources of Pollutants

Human and animal waste (microorganisms)

Naturally occurring in geologic deposits (As, U)

Human activities– industry, mining, agriculture deliver many inorganic and most organic pollution

Sediments from erosion and activities such as excavation & construction


Pollution interaction with water
Pollution Interaction with Water

Dissolved chemicals can be toxic or carcinogenic

Non-aqueous phased liquids (NAPLs) form a separate phase that does not mix with water

  • Include gasoline, chlorinated hydrocarbons

  • Difficult to remove, slowly dissolve


Pollutant interaction with water
Pollutant Interaction with Water

Soluble pollutants enter ground water , flow as plumes

  • Concentrations fall as plumes spread, large area affected

  • Some contaminants bind to soil (sorption)

  • Sorption may prevent migration of contaminants; contaminants stick around even if contaminated plume is pumped out


Water pollution control
Water Pollution Control

Easier to control if it comes from a point source

Approaches include:

  • Improving stormwater mgt systems

  • Regulating land use

  • Limiting broad app of pesticides, herbicides, fertilizer

  • Restoring wetlands


Water pollution control1
Water Pollution Control

Coastal areas and estuaries are impacted by pollution and sedimentation

  • Ocean pollution kills fish, wildlife

  • Damages ecosystems

  • Human illness

  • Economic damage


Water pollution control2
Water Pollution Control

2000 National Research Council cited nutrient pollution as one of the most important ocean pollution problems

  • Stimulates plankton to increase photosynthesis (blooms)

  • When excess plankton die and sink, O2 is used up

  • Leads to hypoxic (dead) zones



Treatments for human and animal wastewater
Treatments for Human and Animal Wastewater

Septic systems- a large container that receives wastewater from the house.


Treatments for human and animal wastewater1
Treatments for Human and Animal Wastewater

Sewage Treatment Plants- centralized plants in areas with large populations that receive wastewater via a network of underground pipes.



Some statistics
Some Statistics

More than 2 million people die each year (cholera, typhoid, dysentery)

1993 – cryptosporidium in Milwaukee killed 110, sickened 400,000

After the outbreak, federal regulators increased testing requirements for turbidity


Waterborne diseases
Waterborne Diseases

  • Includes cholera, typhoid, dysentery

  • Drinking water contains viruses/bacteria

  • Often from human or animal waste


Water washed diseases
Water-washed Diseases

  • Includes skin and eye infections

  • Lack of clean water for washing


Water based diseases
Water-based Diseases

  • Such as schistosomiasis

  • Spread by organisms that develop in water that become human parasites

  • Spread by water and insufficiently cooked food


Water related insect vectors
Water-related Insect Vectors

  • Mosquitoes are the main meanies!

  • Diseases include dengue fever and malaria

  • Not directly related to water supply or quality


Water related diseases
Water-Related Diseases

  • 1 billion people lack safe drinking water

  • The spectrum of disease is altering and the incidence of many water-related microbial diseases is increasing

  • Urbanization & dam construction can spread water related disease

  • Global climate change is also a factor



Clean water act of 1972
Clean Water Act of 1972

  • Focuses on point sources

  • Sources obtain permits for discharges into navigable waters

  • Federal aid to sewage treatment

  • Protection for wetlands has been an issue (developers)


Safe drinking water act
Safe Drinking Water Act

  • Regulates contaminants in public water supplies

  • Sets mandatory limits on 90 contaminants

  • Recommends voluntary standards for other substances that alter water quality


United nations convention on the law of the sea 1982
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982)

  • Creates a comprehensive framework for nations’ use of oceans

  • Outlines rights and responsibilities

  • Including pollution control, research resource management


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