Radiation in your environment
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 25

Radiation in Your Environment PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 68 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Radiation in Your Environment. Radiation Around You. Nature Cosmic (direct and cosmic-produced radioactivity Terrestrial (including radon) Medical Consumer Products Transportation Nuclear Power Nuclear Weapons Fallout. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material.

Download Presentation

Radiation in Your Environment

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Radiation in your environment

Radiation in Your Environment


Radiation around you

Radiation Around You

  • Nature

    • Cosmic (direct and cosmic-produced radioactivity

    • Terrestrial (including radon)

  • Medical

  • Consumer Products

  • Transportation

  • Nuclear Power

  • Nuclear Weapons Fallout


Naturally occurring radioactive material

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material

  • Primordial radionuclides- left over from when the earth was created.

  • Cosmogenic radioactivity - Radionuclides produced when cosmic radiation interacts with the upper atmosphere


Cosmic radiation

Cosmic Radiation

  • The primary source of cosmic radiation is outside this solar system: sun and stars

  • The atmosphere and the earth’s magnetic field act as a shield against radiation, reducing the radiation that reaches the earth’s surface.

  • Higher doses at higher altitudes.


Terrestrial radiation

Terrestrial Radiation

  • Primordial radionuclides in rock and soil

  • Primarily long lived nuclides

    • K-40 (also in food)

      • Body contains about 0.1 µCi which produces 0.2 mSv(20 mrem) per year

    • U-238 series

      • Source of radon in buildings

    • Th-232 series


Environmental monitoring

Environmental Monitoring


Primary objective of a nuclear facility

Primary Objective of a Nuclear Facility

  • Keep radioactive effluents at a minimum

    • Particulate filters to remove particles from air effluents

    • Charcoal filters to remove iodine

    • Hold-up tanks or charcoal traps to allow radioactive noble gasses to decay

    • Filter liquid effluents


Environmental monitoring1

Environmental Monitoring

  • Purpose:

    • To detect any radioactivity released by a nuclear facility

    • To look for high activities of natural radioactivity

    • Verify and validate radioactive effluent monitoring program


Reasons for environmental monitoring

Reasons for Environmental Monitoring

  • External regulators

    • Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    • Environmental Protection Agency

  • Internal motivation

    • Environmental stewardship

    • Insurance (American Nuclear Insurers)

    • Concern for ourselves, families, and neighbors


Nuclear facilities

Nuclear Facilities

  • Program for nuclear facilities:

    • Radioactive Environmental Monitoring Program (REMP)

    • Sampling for a period of three years prior to operation

      • Assess natural radioactivity

    • Continual sampling during operation

      • Look for radionuclides from the plant


Nuclear facilities remp

Nuclear Facilities REMP

  • Measure:

    • Radioactivity

      • Air

      • Water

      • Food

    • Radiation dose

      • At site boundary

      • Public exposures


Remp objectives

REMP: Objectives

  • Protection of environment and people from releases

  • Documentation of existing and continuing radiological conditions

  • Compliance with regulations

  • Documentation of unanticipated environmental effects

  • Protection from legal liabilities

  • Research: verification of models


Remp design

REMP: Design

  • Facility information

    • Radioactivity produced

    • Physical form

      • Particulates

      • Gasses

      • Chemical

    • Effluent controls

  • Pathway information


Remp what to measure

REMP: What to Measure

  • Direct gamma radiation

    • Thermoluminescent dosimeters

    • Ionization meters (real time)

  • Air pathways (inhalation/ingestion)

    • Air (particulates/iodine)

    • Crops

    • Grass-cow-milk pathway


Remp how to measure

REMP: How to Measure

  • Continuous measurements of effluents

    • Stack monitors to measure airborne effluents

    • Radiation monitors in liquid streams

  • Periodic grab samples from environment

    • Food products (milk, fish, vegetables, etc.)

    • Plants (pasture grass, broad leaf vegetation)


Remp measurements direct radiation

REMP: MeasurementsDirect Radiation

Thermo- Luminescent Dosimeters (TLD) measure radiation from facility


Remp measurements direct radiation1

REMP: MeasurementsDirect Radiation


Remp water measurements

REMP: Water Measurements

  • Water pathways (ingestion)

    • Water

    • Fish

    • Aquifers

    • Invertebrates

    • Field/outfall mixing zones


Remp air measurements

REMP: Air Measurements

  • Noble gases:

    • Not chemically reactive

    • Readily dispersed

  • Gases of interest

    • Xe-133, Xe-135

      • Short half-lives (5.2 day, 9.1 hr)

    • Kr-85

      • Long half-life (10.8 yr)


Remp air measurements1

REMP: Air Measurements

  • Tritium (H-3)

    • Liquid effluents

      • Cannot remove from water

  • Iodine and particulates

    • I-131, Cs-137, Sr-90,Co-60

      • Readily removed from effluent

      • Very small releases


Remp air measurements2

REMP: Air Measurements

Low volume air sampler measures particulate material and iodine


Natural radioactivity

Natural Radioactivity

  • Cosmic ray produced

    • H-3, C-14, Na-22, Be-7

      • 4 million Curies of H-3 produced each year

  • Terrestrial

    • Uranium-238 and Thorium-232 series

      • Radium and radon

    • Potassium-40, Rubidium-87


Typical radioactivity in the environment

Typical Radioactivity in the Environment

  • Air particulates

    • Gross beta: 0.004 - 0.04 pCi/m3

    • Be-7: 0.02 - 0.2 pCi/m3

  • Air Iodine

    • Not detectable

  • Soil

    • Sr-90: 0.02 - 0.2 pCi/g

    • Cs-137: 0.1 - 1.0 pCi/g

    • K-40: 5 - 20 pCi/g

    • Ra-226: 10 - 50 pCi/g


Typical radioactivity in the environment1

Typical Radioactivity in the Environment

  • Precipitation

    • Gross beta: 1 - 4 pCi/L

    • H-3: 75 - 200 pCi/L

    • Be-7: 40 - 100 pCi/L

  • Water

    • Gross beta: 0.5 - 5.0 pCi/L

    • H-3: 75 - 200 pCi/:L

    • I-131: 0.25 - 1.0 pCi/L (hospital releases)

  • Sediment

    • Cs-137: 0.1 - 1.0 pCi/g


Typical radioactivity in the environment2

Typical Radioactivity in the Environment

  • Fish

    • Sr-90: 0.002 - 0.02 pCi/g

    • Cs-137: 0.01 - 0.02 pCi/g

  • Milk

    • I-131: not detectable

    • Cs-137: 1 - 10 pCi/L

    • K-40: 1000 - 2300 pCi/L

    • Sr-90: 0.5 - 5.0 pCi/L

  • Food products

    • K-40: 0.5 - 5.0 pCi/g

    • Sr-90: 0.002 - 0.02 pCi/g


  • Login