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Processes That Can Affect the Stages of Memory: PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Processes That Can Affect the Stages of Memory:. Three stages of processing an important event Encoding, Storage and Retrieval Factors that can affect eyewitness memory in these three stages: Encoding stage factors Violence, Unconscious Transference, Divided Attention

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Processes that can affect the stages of memory l.jpg

Processes That Can Affect the Stages of Memory:

  • Three stages of processing an important event

  • Encoding, Storage and Retrieval

  • Factors that can affect eyewitness memory in these three stages:

    • Encoding stage factors

    • Violence, Unconscious Transference, Divided Attention

    • Storage stage factors

    • Time factors

    • Retrieval stage factors

    • Expectations, Misremembering


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Three-Stores Model of Memory

Maintenance

Rehearsal

Attention

Encoding

Sensory

Memory

Working

Memory

LTM

Sensory

Input

Indefinite

Duration

Indefinite

Capacity

(STORAGE)

.5” - 3”

Duration

75 – 100%

Capacity

10” - 15”

Duration

7 + or – 2

Capacity

Retrieval


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How many wrongful convictions are due to misidentification?


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Remember!


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REALITY

It really is the criminal

It’s not the criminal

DECISION

YES, that’s the guilty person

NO, that’s not the guilty person


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Three Steps in Processing an Important Event:

  • The encoding stage—perception of the originalevent

  • The storage stage—time between the event

  • and the recollection of a piece of information

  • The retrieval stage—recall of the stored information


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Encoding Stage Factors:

Violence

  • Weapons Focus - Loftus.

  • Violence towards a Child - Loftus and Burns

Unconscious Transference

  • Donald Thompson - falsely accused

  • Robbery in the Cafeteria - Ross and Ceci

Divided Attention


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Storage Stage Factors

Time Factors

  • A Self Test

  • How Long Before We Forget?-Shepherd


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Shepard’s Results

% Recalled

2 Hrs.

3 Days

7 Days

4 Mths.


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Retrieval Stage Factors

Expectations

  • Telephone game - Allport and Postman

Mis-remembering

  • Mis-remembering and the “Just Desserts” Case

  • The Misinformation Effect - Loftus


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Three Experimental Situations in the Misinformation Paradigm (Loftus):

  • Subjects view an event

  • Subjects are exposed to (misleading)

  • information about the event

  • Subjects recall the event to see if the

  • misleading information has had an effect


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How fast were the cars going when they ******* each other?

Contacted

Hit

Bumped

Collided into

Smashed into


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Loftus 1 Speed estimates for the different verbs used in the witness question

Estimated Speed

Contacted

Hit

Bumped

Collided

Smashed


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