Diurnal changes in forage quality affects animal preference intake performance
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Diurnal Changes in Forage Quality Affects Animal Preference, Intake, Performance. Hank Mayland, Dave Mertens and Bret Taylor USDA-ARS Kimberly, ID; Madison, WI; Dubois, ID Pablo Gregorini, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina Joe Burns, Dwight Fisher, Tony Ciavarella,

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Diurnal changes in forage quality affects animal preference intake performance

Diurnal Changes in Forage Quality Affects Animal Preference, Intake, Performance

Hank Mayland, Dave Mertens and Bret Taylor

USDA-ARS

Kimberly, ID; Madison, WI; Dubois, ID

Pablo Gregorini, Universidad Nacional de

La Plata, Argentina

Joe Burns, Dwight Fisher, Tony Ciavarella,

Kevin Smith, Glenn Shewmaker, Tom Griggs

Dec 2005


Pm cut hay is it for me
PM-Cut Hay Intake, PerformanceIs it For Me ?


Diurnal cycling of tnc
Diurnal Cycling of TNC Intake, Performance

  • 1. In forages

  • 2. Animal preference PM-AM cut hay

  • 3. Animal production PM-AM cut hay

  • 4. Animal production: strip grazed pasture

  • 5. Economic response to PM-cut hay

  • 6. Other benefits


Photosynthesis = CO Intake, Performance2 + H2O chlorophyll O2 + Sugar

Day

Night

TNC

Sunup

Sundown

Time


Variety Differences in TNC Intake, Performance.

TNC

Sunup

Sundown

Time


Relative quality and intake 3 cuttings alfalfa kimberly id
Relative Quality and Intake Intake, Performance3-cuttings alfalfa, Kimberly, ID


Cattle preferences
Cattle Preferences Intake, Performance


Preference testing
Preference Testing Intake, Performance

  • Forage species

    • Fescue, p/a ryegrass, orchard grass, bromegrass oat hay, etc.

    • Corn, switch grass, sudangrass.

    • Legumes: alfalfa, several clovers

  • Animal species

    • Ruminants – cattle, sheep, goats

    • Non Ruminants – horses, rabbits


Preference for pm am cut hay
Preference for PM/AM-cut Hay Intake, Performance

  • Cattle, sheep, goats, horses, rabbits sense hays differing by 0.5% sugar concentrations


Dairy cow lactation
Dairy Cow Lactation Intake, Performance


Milk production
Milk Production Intake, Performance


Sheep growth
Sheep Growth Intake, Performance


Growth study
Growth Study Intake, Performance

  • Lambs at USSES being conditioned for fall breeding were fed TMRs containing 50% PM- or AM-cut alfalfa.

  • Lambs adapted more quickly to the PM-than AM- TMR by consuming more of the stem material.

  • No overall difference in DMI, feed efficiency, or weight gains.


Pasture strip grazing
Pasture – Strip Grazing Intake, Performance



Ensiled materials
Ensiled Materials Intake, Performance


Protein degradation ensiling
Protein Degradation & Ensiling Intake, Performance

  • Alfalfa and red clover (Owens et al)

    • TNC increased throughout the day

    • Silage pH decreased and starch increased with cutting time

    • Success in ensiling forages like alfalfa


When Do I Cut? Intake, Performance

TNC

Sunup

Sundown

Time


Impact on of crop on western us alfalfa and dairy industry
Impact on ½ of Crop on Western US Alfalfa and Dairy Industry

  • 5% increased forage value = $100,000,000+

  • Reducted NDF: $2.40-3.40/ton for each 1% = $44 to 62 m annually.

  • Increased RFQ: $0.90/ton for each 1% = $127 m annually.

  • Increased milk production 5% at $13/cwt = $276 m annually.


Benefits of feeding afternoon vs morning cut forage
Benefits of Feeding IndustryAfternoon vs. Morning Cut Forage

  • > Rate of passage

  • > DM intake and digestibility

  • > Efficiency of forage utilization

  • > Efficiency of protein utilization

  • > Increased energy intake for production

    ---------------------------------------------------------

    < Ammonia excreted

    < Manure excreted


Summary
Summary Industry

  • Sugars increase during day in plants

  • Herbivores can detect sweeter forage

  • Expect 5%+ increased milk production in western U.S.


Isn’t it astonishing that all these secrets have been preserved for so many years just so that we could discover them.Orville Wright, 17 Dec. 1903


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