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Diurnal Changes in Forage Quality Affects Animal Preference, Intake, Performance. Hank Mayland, Dave Mertens and Bret Taylor USDA-ARS Kimberly, ID; Madison, WI; Dubois, ID Pablo Gregorini, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina Joe Burns, Dwight Fisher, Tony Ciavarella,

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diurnal changes in forage quality affects animal preference intake performance

Diurnal Changes in Forage Quality Affects Animal Preference, Intake, Performance

Hank Mayland, Dave Mertens and Bret Taylor

USDA-ARS

Kimberly, ID; Madison, WI; Dubois, ID

Pablo Gregorini, Universidad Nacional de

La Plata, Argentina

Joe Burns, Dwight Fisher, Tony Ciavarella,

Kevin Smith, Glenn Shewmaker, Tom Griggs

Dec 2005

diurnal cycling of tnc
Diurnal Cycling of TNC
  • 1. In forages
  • 2. Animal preference PM-AM cut hay
  • 3. Animal production PM-AM cut hay
  • 4. Animal production: strip grazed pasture
  • 5. Economic response to PM-cut hay
  • 6. Other benefits
slide5

Variety Differences in TNC.

TNC

Sunup

Sundown

Time

preference testing
Preference Testing
  • Forage species
    • Fescue, p/a ryegrass, orchard grass, bromegrass oat hay, etc.
    • Corn, switch grass, sudangrass.
    • Legumes: alfalfa, several clovers
  • Animal species
    • Ruminants – cattle, sheep, goats
    • Non Ruminants – horses, rabbits
preference for pm am cut hay
Preference for PM/AM-cut Hay
  • Cattle, sheep, goats, horses, rabbits sense hays differing by 0.5% sugar concentrations
growth study
Growth Study
  • Lambs at USSES being conditioned for fall breeding were fed TMRs containing 50% PM- or AM-cut alfalfa.
  • Lambs adapted more quickly to the PM-than AM- TMR by consuming more of the stem material.
  • No overall difference in DMI, feed efficiency, or weight gains.
protein degradation ensiling
Protein Degradation & Ensiling
  • Alfalfa and red clover (Owens et al)
    • TNC increased throughout the day
    • Silage pH decreased and starch increased with cutting time
    • Success in ensiling forages like alfalfa
slide18

When Do I Cut?

TNC

Sunup

Sundown

Time

impact on of crop on western us alfalfa and dairy industry
Impact on ½ of Crop on Western US Alfalfa and Dairy Industry
  • 5% increased forage value = $100,000,000+
  • Reducted NDF: $2.40-3.40/ton for each 1% = $44 to 62 m annually.
  • Increased RFQ: $0.90/ton for each 1% = $127 m annually.
  • Increased milk production 5% at $13/cwt = $276 m annually.
benefits of feeding afternoon vs morning cut forage
Benefits of Feeding Afternoon vs. Morning Cut Forage
  • > Rate of passage
  • > DM intake and digestibility
  • > Efficiency of forage utilization
  • > Efficiency of protein utilization
  • > Increased energy intake for production

---------------------------------------------------------

< Ammonia excreted

< Manure excreted

summary
Summary
  • Sugars increase during day in plants
  • Herbivores can detect sweeter forage
  • Expect 5%+ increased milk production in western U.S.
slide23

Isn’t it astonishing that all these secrets have been preserved for so many years just so that we could discover them.Orville Wright, 17 Dec. 1903

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