Disorders of high level functions amnesia aphasia and prosopagnosia
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Disorders of High Level Functions: Amnesia, Aphasia, and Prosopagnosia. Arielle Tambini SPLASH November 21, 2004 MIT Braintrust. Memory. Explicit/semantic Implicit/episodic Long-term Short-term. Amnesia. Causes Retrograde Anterograde Transient global. HM. Epilepsy treatment

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Disorders of High Level Functions: Amnesia, Aphasia, and Prosopagnosia

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Disorders of high level functions amnesia aphasia and prosopagnosia

Disorders of High Level Functions: Amnesia, Aphasia, and Prosopagnosia

Arielle Tambini

SPLASH November 21, 2004

MIT Braintrust


Memory

Memory

  • Explicit/semantic

  • Implicit/episodic

  • Long-term

  • Short-term


Amnesia

Amnesia

  • Causes

  • Retrograde

  • Anterograde

  • Transient global


Disorders of high level functions amnesia aphasia and prosopagnosia

HM

  • Epilepsy treatment

  • Anterograde amnesia

    • Long-term explicit memory deficits

  • Short-term intact

  • “You just remember 8. You see 5, 8, 4 add to 17. You remember 8; subtract from 17 and it leaves 9. Divide 9 by half and you get 5 and 4, and there you are – 584.”


Temporal lobe amnesia

Temporal-lobe Amnesia

  • Intact implicit memories

    • Blinking study

    • Motor tasks

    • Computer programming

  • Role of hippocampus

    • Imaging studies


Episodic memory deficits

Episodic memory deficits

  • Developmental

    • Loss of blood flow

    • Bilateral hippocampal damage

  • Prefrontal damage

  • “Childhood amnesia”

  • Aging

  • Korsakoff’s syndrome


Aphasia

Aphasia

  • Definition

  • Left hemisphere

  • Causes

  • History


Broca s nonfluent aphasia

Broca’s/nonfluent aphasia

  • Characteristics

    • Anomia

    • Short sentences

    • Language comprehension

  • Broca’s area

    • Theories of function


Broca s nonfluent aphasia1

Broca’s/nonfluent aphasia

“I asked Mr. Ford about his work before he entered the hospital.

‘I’m a sig… no… man… uh, well,… again.” These words were emitted slowly, and with great effort. The sounds were not clearly articulated; each syllable was uttered harshly, explosively, in a throaty voice. With practice, it was possible to understand him, but at first I encountered considerable difficulty with this.

‘Let me help you,’ I interjected. ‘You were a signal…”

‘A signal man… right,’

‘Were you in the Coast Guard?’

‘No, er, yes, yes... Ship… Massachu… chusetts… Coastguard… years.’ He raised his hands twice, indicating the number 19.


Wernicke s fluent aphasia

Wernicke’s/fluent aphasia

  • Characteristics

    • Comprehension and production loss

    • Speech

      • “Nothing the keesereez the, these are davereez and these and this one and these are living. This one’s right in and these are … uh… and that’s nothing, that’s nothing.”

  • Wernicke’s area

    • Normal function


Aphasias

Aphasias

  • Broca’s vs. Wernicke’s

    • Apraxia (action)

    • Agnosia (perception)

  • Other areas

  • Severity

    • Onset


Aphasias1

Aphasias

  • Handedness

    • Language localization

    • Recovery

  • Bilingual aphasics

  • Deafness and aphasia?

  • Plasticity


Agnosia

Agnosia

  • Definition

  • Prosopagnosia

    • Causes

    • Intact object recognition

    • Recognition of face


Prosopagnosia

Prosopagnosia

  • Face perception

    • Fusiform Face Area (FFA)

    • Holistic processing

    • Expertise

    • Greeble training


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