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Chapter 9 - Water. Water Cycle Water Budget. The World’s Water. Oceans, lakes, rivers, groundwater, atmosphere, living things, glaciers, and more… Water is measured by volume. “How much space it takes up.” 97 % is in the oceans. The World’s Water. Less than 3% is fresh!!!

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Chapter 9 water

Chapter 9 - Water

Water Cycle

Water Budget


The world s water
The World’s Water

  • Oceans, lakes, rivers, groundwater, atmosphere, living things, glaciers, and more…

  • Water is measured by volume. “How much space it takes up.”

  • 97 % is in the oceans


The world s water1
The World’s Water

  • Less than 3% is fresh!!!

    • 2/3 is frozen in ice caps

    • Rest is fresh (usable) water

    • Works out to be less than 1/2 of 1%


OCEANS 97.2%

ICE CAPS 2%

GROUNDWATER 0.78%

LAKES 0.013%

SOIL 0.006%

ATMOSPHERE 0.0007%

RUNNING 0.0002%

BIOSPHERE 0.0001%


Where is the fresh water
Where is the fresh water?

  • Tiny part is flowing on the surface of Earth (rivers, streams)

  • 100 times that is stored in lakes, swamps, etc.

  • 50 times that is stored in the ground as groundwater.


Water cycle
Water Cycle

  • Again like all matter, water is recycled.

  • Simple water cycle (Magnificent 7):

    Evaporation-liquid to gas

    Transpiration-liquid to gas in plants

    Sublimation-solid to gas


Water cycle1
Water Cycle

Condensation–Gas to liquid-clouds

Precipitation-gas to liquid/solid

Runoff-running water on surface

Groundwater-soil moisture, water underground


Water budget
Water Budget

  • Compares the input (water you get) and output (water you use) of water in a specific region.


Water budget1
Water Budget

  • Controlled by many different climate factors

    • Air temperature

    • Humidity (Season Extremes)

    • Rainfall amount

    • Soil Type


Water budget graphs
Water Budget Graphs

  • A comparison between Moisture supply (precip) and Moisture demand (evap)

  • A water budget has 4 parts: usage, recharge, surplus, and deficit


Water budget graphs1
Water Budget Graphs

  • Usage – When plants, humans, sun is taking water out of the system.

  • Recharge - When the ground water is being filled back up


Water budget graphs2
Water Budget Graphs

  • Surplus - Rainfall is greater than the need. Soil is moist.

  • Deficit - Need for moisture is greater than the rainfall coming into the system. Soil is dry


Rocks holding water
Rocks Holding Water??

Porosity – Volume of space in between rocks/soil that can hold water

Permeability – The rate at which water can pass through the pore spaces of rock/soil



Rocks holding water2
Rocks Holding Water??

  • Impermeable – Water cannot pass through the pore space.

  • Capillary – Ability of water to “stick” to its surroundings by its surface tension




Water table1
Water Table

  • Ground becomes saturated with water. This is the ground water that we have been talking about.

  • Water Table – The top portion of the “zone of groundwater saturation”


Water table2
Water Table

  • Zone of Aeration – Water and air mixed with the rocks and soil

  • Capillary fringe – Border between air/water and just water. Right above the water table (pg. 154)

  • Zone of Saturation – Just water in the soil and no air


Wells and springs
Wells and Springs

  • Ordinary well - A hole dug or drilled down below the water table. ( water must be pumped out)

  • Spring - Place where the water table is at the surface.

  • Artesian well - A well that is pressurized. (water will not have to be pumped out)


Aquifers
Aquifers

  • Are permeable materials that contain and carry groundwater

    • Best are - Sand, gravel, and porous sandstone

Link to Page About Water Resources


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