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; ksx rFkk vk;qosZn o. BY: DR. MANU SHARMA DEPTT. OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY PHAGWARA (JALANDHAR). ; ksx dk vFkZ , oa çdkj.

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ksx rfkk vk qoszn o
;ksxrFkkvk;qosZno

BY:

DR. MANU SHARMA

DEPTT. OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES

LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

PHAGWARA (JALANDHAR).

ksx dk vfkz oa dkj
;ksxdkvFkZ ,oaçdkj

;ksxdkvFkZgSvkRekdksijekReklstksM+uk] vk;q ,oaçk.k\'kfDrdks c<+kuk] viusvgadkR;kxdjmllsÅijmBuk] viuhekufld] vkfFkZd ,oa \'kkjhfjd \'kfDr;ksadkfodkldjukA ;ksx }kjkviuseu] \'kjhj ,oabfUnz;ksadksviuso\'kesafd;ktkldrkgSA ;g ;ksxghgSftldsek/;e lsijekRek ,oaeks{k dh çkfIrHkhlaHkogSA ;ksx ,d fof\'k"VçdkjdkfoKkugStksinkFkZ] thorFkkpsrukdks ,d lkFkysdjpyrkgSrFkkfoKkuvkSj v/;kRe dh [kkbZijcka/k dkdkedjrkgSA ;ksx ,d oSKkfudç.kkyhgSftldsfofHkUuekxZgS 1½ ;FkkdeZ ;ksx 2½ Kku ;ksx 3½ jkt ;ksx 4½ HkfDr ;ksx] 5½ gB;ksx 6½ eU=;ksx 7½ y; ;ksx 8½ rU= ;ksx

v vkax ksx
*v"Vkax ;ksx*
  • ;ksxdsfy, yksxksadseuesadbZHkzkfUr;kagSAdqNyksxHkzeo\'kvFkokvYiKkudsdkj.kçk.k;evFkokvkludksgh ;ksxdki;kZ;okphekursgSaij ;s lEiw.kZ ;ksxughagSAvktfo\'odsf\'kf{kr] fodflr ;k fodkl\'khyns\'kksaesaftl *;ksx* dh yksdfç;rkrst+hls c<+ jghgSmldkvkfnewyHkkjrcãf"kZiratfyeqfu }kjk ç.khr \'kkL= *;ksxn\'kZu* gSAegkeqfuiratfu us tulk/kkj.kdks ;ksxlsifjfprdjkusdsfy, *;ksxn\'kZu* uked \'kkL= dsnwljsikn ¼v/;k;½ dkçkjEHk *fØ;k;ksx* dso.kZulsghfd;kgSftlesamUgksaus ;ksxdsvkBvaxksadkfoLr`rfooj.kçLrqrfd;kgSA ;ksxdsblvkBvaxksadks *v"Vkax ;ksx* dgrsgSaA
slide5

1½ ;e %& *vfgalklR;kLrs; czãp;kZifjxzgk ;ek%

¼;ksx n\'kZu & [email protected]½

  • vFkkZrvfgalk] lR;] pksjh u djuk] czãpk;ZrFkkvifjxzg¼O;FkZ laxg u djuk½ & ;s ikap ;e gSAbudkikyudjrsgq, vuqdwyvkpj.kdjuk ;ksx dh igyhlh<+h gSAviusO;ogkfjd thou dkslkfRod ,oafnO; cukusdsfy, ;e dkç;ksxfd;ktkrkgSA
  • fu;e%&*\'kkSplUrks"kr;% Lok/;k;bZ\'ojçf.k/kkukfufu;ek% ¼;ksxn\'kZu [email protected]½
  • vFkkZr\'kkSp ¼\'kqf)½] lUrks"k] ri ¼lq[k&nq%[k leku :ilslgysuk½Lok/;k; ¼vkRefujh{k.k ,oaxzUFkksadk v/;;u euu djuk½ rFkkbZ\'oj&çf.k/kku ¼bZ\'oj dksviZ.kdjdslcdke djuk½ ;s ikapfu;egSaAbudklaca/k \'kjhj] bfUnz;ksarFkkvUr%dj.klsgSA
slide6

vklu %& ;g ;ksx dh rhljhlh<+h gSftldsek/;e ls \'kjhjrFkkbldsvo;oksadks fHkUu&2 çdkjlsfLFkjfd;ktkrkgSAgB;ksx \'kkL= esa 84 vkluksadkmYys[k feyrkgSAbuesalsçR;sddkvH;kl ;fn mudsvuqdwyfd, tkusokysfo\'ks"kçk.kk;keksadslkFkfd;ktk, rksukM+hpØksarFkk \'kjhjdsHkhrjdsfHkUu&fHkUuvaxksa dh lks;hgqbZ \'kfDr;katkx`rgksrhgSA

  • çk.kk;ke %& ;ksxlk/kuk dh pkSFkhlh<+h gS *çk.kk;ke*A bls \'oklksadkO;k;keHkhdgktkldrkgSAvf[kyczãk.MesaijekRek }kjkçkf.k;ksaesaçk.klapkjO;oLFkkdjusokyhtksijepsrulŸkkO;kIrgS] mlsviusladYilsczãk.M dh ijepsrukesalsviusçk.kksadksleqfprlapj.kdsfy, ;Fks"Vek=k esa ml psruçk.kÅtkZdks [khapus dh çfØ;kdkukeçk.kk;kegSA
k kk ke
çk.kk;ke
  • bldsvkBHksngSa ;Fkk &
  • 1½ lw;ZHksnuçk.kk;ke
  • 2½ mTt;hçk.kk;ke
  • 3½ \'khryhçk.kk;ke
  • 4½ lhrdkjhçk.kk;ke
  • 5½ Hkzkejh
  • 6½ HkfL=dkçk.kk;ke
  • 7½ ewNkZçk.kk;ke
  • 8½ dsoyhçk.kk;ke
slide8
lw;ZHksnuçk.kk;ke

\'khryhçk.kk;ke

slide9
lhrdkjhçk.kk;ke

Hkzkejhçk.kk;ke

slide10
HkfL=dkçk.kk;ke

ewNkZçk.kk;ke

slide11

çR;kgkj %& ;g ;ksxlk/kuk dh ikapohlh<+h gSAtclk/kdckgjhfo"k;ksalseudksgVkdjfdlhvkarfjdfcanqijfLFkjdjusesalQygkstkrkgSrFkkeuviuhbPNkds v/khudjblsviuso\'kesadjdstgkapkgsogkaystkus dh {kerkls ;qDrgkstkrkgSrks ;g le>ukpkfg, fdmldkçR;kgkjlkFkx;kAiartfy _f"kdkdFkugS

*Lofo"k;klEç;ksxsfpRrLo:ikuqdkjbosfUnz;k.kkaçR;kgkj %AA

vFkkZreu dh \'kfDr;ksadks ,dkxzdjdsmUgsackgjhfo"k;ksa dh vksjtkuslsjksdus dh çfØ;kdks *çR;kgkj* dgktkrkgSA

  • /kkj.kk %& ;ksxlk/kuk dh NBhlh<+h gS */kkj.kk*A gekjs \'kkL=ksaesafopkj \'kfDrdksvUr%dj.k dh vksj ,dkxzdjus dh fØ;kdks */kkj.kk* dgkx;kgSAeuds 12 iy ,d LFkkuijBgjus dh fLFkfrdksdgrsgSa /kkj.kkçkIrdjukA ;ghalslk/kdokLrfod ;ksxekxZesaçfo"BdjrkgSA
slide12

/;ku %& /kkj.kkdsvkxs ;ksxlk/kuk dh lkrohalh<+h gS **/;ku**A /;kuds }kjkgheuq"; lekf/k voLFkkesaços\'kikrkgStgkaijlk/kdesalw{e cks/k djkusokyhNBhbfUnz; dkfodklgksrkgSAfnO; p{kq [kqytkrsgSarFkkvkRekdkijekReklslk{kkRdkjgkstkrkgSA /;kudsHkhvkxspkjHksngSa %&

  • 1½ inLFk /;ku
  • 2½ fiaMLFk /;ku
  • 3½ :iLFk /;ku
  • 4½ :ikarfjr /;ku
  • lekf/k %& ;g ;ksx dh oksfØ;kgSftlesaeuq"; xq.kjfgrgkstkrkgSrFkkmlsLo:idkcks/k ughajgrkAbZ\'ojdkfujUrj /;ku djrs&2 fpr~ tcviusvkdkjdkKkuHkqykdjoLrq \'kwU; gqvk] ,d fuf\'pr le; rd bZ\'ojesayhugkstkrkgSrFkkbZ\'ojdslekugh fn[kkbZnsusyxrkgSrksblvoLFkkdkslekf/k vFkokrqjh;koLFkkdgktkrkgSA
glr eqnzk sa
gLreqnzk;sa

Kkueqnzk

çk.keqnzk

slide14
vikueqnzk

ok;qeqnzk

slide15
o:.k eqnzk

lw;Zeqnzk

slide16
e`xheqnzk

vaxq"Beqnzk

slide17
iadteqnzk

vkdk\'keqnzk

vk qoszn
vk;qosZn
  • mn~s”; vk;qosZndsnksmn~s”; gSa %
  • ¼1½ LoLFkO;fDr;ksadsLokLF; dh j{kkdjukA ¼LokLF; lja{k.k½
  • ¼2½ jksxhO;fDr;ksadsfodkjksadksnwjdjmUgsaLoLFkcukukA ¼jksxgj.k½
  • vk;qosZn ¼vk;q%$osn½ bunks “kCnksalsfeydjcusvk;qosZn “kCndkvFkZgS **thou foKku**A vk;qosZngekjsosnksa dh gh ,d “kk[kkgS] mldkfodklfofHkUuoSfndeU=ksalsgqvkgS] ftuesalalkjrFkk thou] jksxksarFkkvkS’kf/k;ksadsewyrRon”kZudko.kZufd;kx;kgS] vk;qosZndsKkudkspjdlfgarkrFkklqJqrlfgarkesaO;kid :ilsçysf[krfd;kx;kFkkA
slide19

vk;qosZndkrRoKkuiapegkHkwrksads fl)karijvk/kkfjrgS] buiaprRoksadkla;kstu f=nks’kds :iesaof.kZrgS] tSlsokr ¼vkdk”k $ ok;q½] fiRr ¼vfXu $ rst½ rFkkdQ ¼ty $ i`Foh½] ;s rhuksanks’kçkf.k;ksaesaik, tkrsgSaA

  • vkarfjdrFkkckàk ?kVdksaesafdlhHkhçdkjdkvlarqyujksxdkdkj.kgSrFkkfofHkUurduhdksa] çfØ;kvksa] iF;kiF;] vkgkj] rFkk] vkS’kf/k;ksadsek/;e lslarqyudksiqu% LFkkfirdjukghfpfdRlkgSAvktlkjkfo”ovk;qosZnfpfdRlkç.kkyh dh vkSjvkdf’kZrgksjgkgS] ftldsrgrHkkjr dh vusdtM+hcwfV;ksadkmi;ksxmUgksausviuhfpfdRlkesa “kq: djfn;kgSAvk;qosZnh; mipkj dh ,d ;g Hkhfo”ks’krkgSfdblesajksxtM+ lsu’VgksrkgSvkSjiqu% mRifRrughagksrhAvk;qosZnesajksxksadkijh{k.k ,oaigpkueq[;r% ç”uksavkSjvkBijh{k.ktSls %& ukM+h] ey] ew=] us=] “kCn ¼vkokt½] thâk] Li”kZ] vkd`fr }kjk dh tkrhgSA
vk qoszn dh fo ks krk
vk;qosZn dh fo”ks’krk,¡
  • vk;qosZndklafgrkdky ¼1000 b0 iwoZ0½ dsnkSjkuvkBfo”ks’k “kk[kkvksaesafodklgqvk] blhdkj.klsblsv’Vkaxvk;qosZnHkhdgktkrkgSA
  • v’Vkaxçdkj ;s gSa %&
  • ¼1½ dk;fpfdRlk(INTERNAL MEDICINE)
  • ¼2½ dkSekjHkzR; (PEDIATRICS)
  • ¼3½ xzgfpfdRlk(PSYCHIATRY)
  • ¼4½ “kkykD; (EYE & E.N.T.)
  • ¼5½ “kY; ra= (SURGERY)
  • ¼6½ fo’kra= (TOXICOLOGY)
  • ¼7½ jlk;u(GERIATRICS)
  • ¼8½ okthdj.k(SCIENCE OF VITALITY)
vk qoszn dk kstu
vk;qosZndkç;kstu

ç;kstupkL; LoLFkL; LokLFkj{k.kekrqjLFk

fodkjç\'keuapAA

¼pjd lafgrklw=½

  • vFkkZrvk;qosZn \'kkL= dkç;kstuLoLFkO;fDrdsLokLF; dh j{kkdjukrFkkjksxhO;fDrdsjksxdksnwjdjiqu% LoLFkdjukgSAvk;qosZn \'kkL= njvly *vk;qdkfoKku* gS
slide22

fgrkfgralq[ka nq%[kek;qLrL; fgrkfgreA

ekua p rP; ;=ksDrek;qosZn % l mP;rs

¼egf"kZpjd½

vFkkZrvk;q] vfgrvk;q] lq[k vk;qrFkknq%[k vk;q] blpkjçdkj dh vk;qdsfy, fgr ¼iF;½] vfgr ¼viF;½] vk;qdkeku ¼çek.k rFkk vçek.k½ vkSjvk;qdkLo:icrk;kx;kgksmlsvk;qosZn \'kkL= dgktkrkgSAblhfy, vk;qosZn us *LokLF; dh j{kkdjukrFkkjksxdkmUewyudjiqu% LoLFkdjuk* tSlsmŸke y{; dksviukeq[; ç;kstu fu/kkZfjrfd;kA ,slsmik; fd, fcukek= vkS"kf/k lsoudjkrsjguslsjksxhjksxlsiw.kZr% eqDrgkstkrkgSAjksxdkslewyu"Vdjusdsfy, *la{ksir% *fØ;k;ksxksfunkuifjotZue~* dsvuqlkj mu dkj.kksadksR;kxukghgksxkftulsjksxmRiUugqvkgksAvk;qosZnesaiF;&viF; dkfo/kkugSftldkmn~s\'; jksxds cy dks c<+us lsjksdukgSAijUrq ;fn jksxhfpfdRlkdsnkSjku ,slkvkgkj&fogkjdjrkjgstksjksxds cy dks c<+kusokykgksrksfQjvkS"kf/k lsoudkdksbZvFkZughaA

slide23

vk;qosZn us blhfy, dgkgS &

*la{ksirfØ;k;ksxksfunkuifjotZue~*

vFkkZrjksxdksmRiUudjusdktksdkj.kgSmlsR;kxnsukgh la{ksiesafpfdRlkgSAiF; lsoulsjksxhdk cy c<+rkgSrFkkjksxdk cy ?kVrkgSblhfy, iF; dslsourFkkviF; dsR;kxijvk;qosZn us vkS"kf/k lsoulsHkhT;knktksjfn;kgSA

slide24
vknkudky

folxZdky

blesao’kkZ] “kjnvkSjgseUr _rq,agksrhgSA

Øe”k% Jko.k] Hkknksa] Dokj] dkfrZd] vxgu] ikS’keklgksrsgSA

lw;Znf{k.kk;ugksrkgSA

lkSE; gksrkgSA

ok;qvfr :[khughagksrhgSA

pUnzekdk cy iw.kZjgrkgSA

lw;Zdkcy {kh.kjgrkgSA

pUnzekrIrdjrkgSA

e/kqj] vEy] yo.kjl dh o`f) gksrhgSA

euq"; dk ;FkkØecyiqf’V dh çkfIrgksrhgSA

  • blesaf”kf”kj] clUrvkSjxzh’e _rq,agksrhgSA
  • Øe”k% ek?k] QkYxqu] pS=] oS”kk[k] T;s’B] vk’kk<+ eklgksrsgSA
  • lw;ZmRrjk;.kgksrkgSA
  • vkXus; ¼xje½ gksrkgSA
  • ok;qvfr :[khgksrhgSA
  • pUnzekdk cy {kh.kjgrkgSA
  • lw;Zdk cy iw.kZjgrkgSA
  • lw;Z o ok;q ”kks’k.kdjrsgSA
  • frDr] d’kk;] dVqjl dh o`f) gksrhgSA
  • euq’; dks ;FkkØenkScZY; dh çkfIrgksrhgSA
f nks k
f=nks’k

lqJqrlfgrkesaLoLFk dh ifjHkk’kkblçdkjnhxbZgS

f=nks"klenks"k% lekfXu\'p le/kkrqeyfØ;%A

çlUukRedsfUnz;euk% LoLFkbR;fHk/kh;rsAA

  • vFkkZrftlds \'kjhjdsrhuksanks"k ¼okr] fir] dQ½ lekuvoLFkkesagks] ftldhvfXu ¼tBjkfXu½ lekugks] lc /kkrq,alekuvoLFkkesagks] ftldheyfoltZufØ;kBhdlsgksrhgS] tksçlUueurFkkbfUnz;ksaokykgksmlsghLoLFk \'kjhjokykdgktk,xkA
  • okr] fir] dQlkekU; voLFkkesajgsarks \'kjhjdks /kkj.kdjusokysgksusls */kkrq* dgykrsgSarFkkdqfirvoLFkkesa \'kjhjdksnwf"krdjusokysgkstkusls *nks"k* dgstkrsgSaA \'kjhjdks /kkj.kdjusesaburhuksadslkFkghjDr dh egRrkgStksvk;qosZndsbl \'yksdlsO;DrgksrhgSA

ursZnsg% dQknfLr u fiRrkUu p ek:rku~A

\'kksf.krknfi ok fuR;ansg ,rSLrq /kk;ZrsA

¼lqJqr lafgrklw=½

jksxksa dh d fr rfkk hksn
jksxksa dh çd`frrFkkHksn
  • vk;qosZnesa vyx&2 fLFkfr;ksadsvuqlkjjksxksads vyx&2 Hksncrk, gSaA *lqJqrlafgrk* rFkk *Hkkoçdk\'k* esajksxdspkjçdkjcrk,a x, gSa ;Fkk & 1½ vkxUrqd 2½ \'kkjhfjd 3½ ekufld 4½ LokHkkfodA *v"Vkaxân;* esajksxdsnksghçdkjfutrFkkvkxUrqdcrk, x, gSaA *pjdlafgrk* esavU; pkjçdkjdsjksxksadko.kZugS ;Fkk %& 1½ vkxUrqt 2½ okrt 3½ fiŸkt 4½ dQtA *pjdlafgrk* esadgkx;kgSfdjksxksadkjksxRo ,d çdkjdkghgksrkgSD;ksafdlHkhesalkekU; :ilsihM+kgksrhgSA
slide27

jksx dh çd`fr ¼dkj.k½ nksçdkj dh gksrhgS &

1½ vkxUrqd 2½ fut ¼okr]fir]dQ½

jksxksadsvf/k"Bku ¼LFkku½ nksgksrsgS %& 1½ eu 2½ \'kjhjfQjjksxh dh çd`fr ¼dkj.k½ 2½ vf/k"Bku 3½ fyax ¼y{k.k½ 4½ vk;ru ¼n`"V vkpkjvkgkj vkfn½A bldkfodYivifjla[;s; gksrkgSblfy, jksxvla[;s; gksrsgSAvkxUrqdjksxgksusdbZdkj.kgksrsgStSlsdVuk] fxjuk] pqHkuk] tyukbR;kfnrFkkfutdkj.kksaesavuqfprvkgkjfogkjrFkkvkpkj&fopkjdsdkj.kokr] fiŸk o dQdkfo"kegkstkukgksrkgSA

slide28

okrdkLFkku%&iDok\'k;] ew=k\'k;] eyk\'k;] dej] nksuksaiSj] vfLFk;ksadkslfU/k LFkyvkfnokrdsvf/k"BkugSAbuesaiDok\'k; okrdkfo\'ks"kLFkkugSA

fiŸkdkLFkku%& Losn] jl] yfldk] jDrvkSjvek\'k; ;s fiŸkdsLFkkugSaAbuesalsvek\'k; fir dkfo\'ks"kLFkkugSA

dQdkLFkku%& o{kLFky] flj] xyk] vek\'k; vkSjesnk ;s dQdsLFkkugSAbuesa o{kLFkydQdkfo\'ks"kLFkkugSA

okrdqfirdjusokykvkgkjfogkjdjusls 80 çdkjdsokrtjksxgksldrsgSAfiŸkdqfirgksusij 40 çdkjdsrFkkdQdqfirgksusij 20 çdkjdsdQtjksxmRiUugksldrsgSA ;s lHkhfutjksxdgykrsgSA ;fn lkekU; rFkkmfprvkgkj&fogkjdkikyudjusesalrdZrkrFkkla;edkikyufd;ktk, rksokr] fiŸk o dQdkslkekU; /kkrq :iesa j[kktkldrkgSrFkkukukçdkjdsjksxksalsxzLrgksuscpktkldrkgSA

kv jl
"kV~jl
  • mifŸk %& vk;qosZnesa f=nks"kdsvykokjlksadkHkhftØfd;kx;kgSAjL;rsvkLok|rsbfrjl% dsvuqlkjthHk }kjkftldkLoknfy;ktk, mlsjldgrsgSA
  • blds N% çdkjgS %&
  • 1½ e/kqj
  • 2½ vEy
  • 3½ yo.k
  • 4½ dVq
  • 5½ frDr
  • 6½ d"kk; 
  • jlksa dh mRifŸkewyr% iaprRoksalsgksrhgSD;ksafd ;g czãk.MiapegkrRoksalscukgSvkSj *;n~ fi.Msrn~ czãk.Ms* dsvuqlkjgekjk \'kjhjHkhczãk.M dh HkkafriaprRoksalsghcukgSAtyrFkki`FohrRols e/kqjjl dh mRifŸkgqbZ] i`FohrFkkvfXurRolsvEyjl dh mRifŸkgqbZ] tyrFkkvfXurRolsyo.kjl] ok;qrFkkvfXurRolsdVqjl] ok;qvkSjvkdk\'krRolsfrDrjlrFkkok;qvkSji`FohrRolsd"kk; jl dh mRifŸkgqbZgSA
slide30

bujlksaesa e/kqj] vEyrFkkyo.kjlokrdk \'keudjrsgaS] e/kqj] frDrrFkkd"kk; jlfiŸkdk \'keudjrsgSa] dVq] frDrrFkkd"kk; jldQdk \'keudjrsgSA ;fn dVq] frDrrFkkd"kk; jldslsouesavfr dh tk, rksokrdqfirgksrkgSAvEyvkSjyo.kjldsvfrlsoulsdQdqfirgksrkgSAfLuX/k jlfiŸkdks \'kkardjrkgSrFkkvfrlsoudjusijdQdksdqfirdjrkgSAfluX/krkrSy dh gksrksfiŸkdksdqfirdjrhgSA e/kqjjl \'kjhj dh lkrksa /kkrqvksadkiks"k.kdjrkgSAlkr /kkrqvksadsukejl] jDr] ekal] esn] vfLFk] eTtkrFkk \'kqØgSaA

slide31

e/kqjjl %& e/kqjjlikapksaKkusfUnz;ksa ¼vka[k] ukd] dku] thHkrFkk Ropk½ vkSjeudksçlUudjusokykrFkkvk;qdsfy, lq[kdkjhgksrkgSAbljldsvfrlsoulseksVkik] vkyL;] Hkkjhiu] vf/kduhan] tBjkfXueaniM+uktSlhO;kf/k;kamRiUugksldrhgSablfy, vk;qosZnbljldsvfrlsou dh otZukdjrkgSA

vEyjl %& ;g jltBjkfXudksrst+ djrkgS] Hkkstuesa :fp c<+krkgS] \'kjhjdkseksVkdjrkgS] bfUnz;ksadkscyoku~ rFkkeudkslps"VdjrkgSA /kkrqvkadksr`IrdjikpufØ;kesalgk;dgksrkgSAckrdk \'keu ,oafiŸkrFkkdQdksdqfirdjrkgSAbldsvfrlsoulsvEyfiŸk] ;kSu \'kfDresadehxys] Nkrh] mnjesatyuvkfnO;kf/k;kamRiUugksrhgSA

slide32

yo.kjl %& ;g jlLokncukrkgS] vUuipkrkgS] tBjkfXurst+ djrkgSAokrdk \'keudjrkgSrFkkfiŸkdksdqfirdjrkgS] dCt+ dkuk\'kdjrkgS] #fp c<+krkgSAxq.kksaesa ;g vf/kdHkkjhughagksrkvfirqfLuX/k o m".kgksrkgSAbljldsvfrlsoulsfiŸkdqfirgksrkgS] I;kl c<+rhgS] \'kjhjesarkirFkk [kq\'dh dh o`f) gksrhgSA de mezesackylQsngksuk] >M+ukrFkkRopkij >qfjZ;kamRiUugksukbldsbldsvfrlsouds ifj.kke gSAbldsvfrlsoulsvEyfiŸk] jDrfiŸk] okrjDr (Gout) vkfnjksxmRiUugksrsgSA

dVqjl %& ;g jleqaglkQdjrkgS] tBjkfXu c<+krkgS] bfUnz;ksadksmŸksftrdjrkgS] Hkkstuesa #fpmRiUudjrkgSAokr o fiŸkdksdqfir ,oadQçdksidk \'keudjrkgSAxq.kksaesagYdk] m".krFkk :[ksxq.kokykgksrkgSAbljldsvfrlsoulsiq#"kRo \'kfDru"VgksrhgSAdVqrFkkm".krkdsçHkkols \'kjhjesavolkn] eksgrFkk /kkrqvksa dh f\'kfFkyrkvkfn dh mRifŸkgksrhgS] eq[k o \'kjhjesatyu] daiurFkkokrtU; jksxdks y{k.kçdVgksukvkfnO;kf/k;kaiSnkgksrhgSaA

slide33

frDrjl %& ;g rh[kkpjijkjlLoknesav#fpdkgksrsgq, HkhHkkstuesa #fpiSnkdjrkgS] fo"kkDrçHkkou"VdjrkgS] tyu] [kqtyh] ewPNkZ] RopkfodkjrFkkd`feu"VdjrkgSA ;g fiŸk o dQdk \'keudjrkgSvkSjokrdksdqfirdjrkgSAxq.kksaesa ;g :[kk] \'khry o gYdsxq.kokykgSAbldsvfrlsouls ;g jljDr] ekal] esnvkfnlIr/kkrqvksadk \'kks"k.kdjrkgS] \'kkjhfjd cy de djrkgSrFkkokrjksxksa dh o`f) djrkgSA

6½ d"kk; jl %& dlSysjldslsoulsfiŸk] dQrFkkjDrdsnks"kksadk \'keugksrkgSvkSjokrdkçdksigksrkgSA ;g laxzkgh ¼cka/kus okyk½] ?kkoHkjusokyk] ladkspdgksrkgSrFkkbldklsou de ghfd;ktkrkgSAxq.kksaesa ;g :[kk] \'khryrFkkHkkjhxq.kksaokykgksrkgSAbldsvfrlsoulseqaglw[krkgS o ,saBugksrhgSAân; esaihM+kgksrhgS] okd~\'kfDresadehgksrhgS] Ropkdks \';keo.kZdjrkgS] ikS:"k cy {kh.kdjrkgSAokr] eyew= rFkk \'kqØdksjksdrkgSAi{kk?kkrvfnZr] virkudvkfnjksxmRiUudjrkgSrFkkokrfodkjmRiUudjrkgSA

vk qoszfnd fpfdrlk i fr ka
vk;qosZfndfpfdRlki)fr;ka
  • vk;qosZnesafofHkUuçdkj dh fpfdRlki)fr;kalekfgrgSatSlsjaxfpfdRlk] jlfpfdRlk] "kV~deZfpfdRlkvkfnAftudko.kZublçdkjgS %&
  • "kV~deZfpfdRlk %& vk;qosZnesa "kV~deZfpfdRlkfof/k }kjkHkhfofHkUujksxksalsNqVdkjkikdj f=nks"kksadkslarqfyrfd;ktkldrkgSA "kVdeZ dh N% fØ;k,ablçdkjgS %&
  • 1½ usfr
  • 2½ /kkSfr
  • 3½ cfLr
  • 4½ ukSfy
  • 5½ =kVd
  • 6½ dikyHkkfr
slide35
usfr

/kkSfr

slide36
ukSfy

=kVd

ky fpfdrlk
“kY;fpfdRlk
  • *lqJqrlafgrk* vk;qosZnfoKku dh çkphu”kY; fpfdRlkfof/k dkvf/kd`rxzUFkgSAegf’kZlqJqrvk;qosZnesa “kY; fpfdRlkdstudekustkrsgSA “kY; “kkL= vk;qosZndsvkBvaxksa ;Fkk& 1] “kY;“kkL= 2]dk;&fPkfdRlk 3]jl“kkL= 4]dkSekjHk`R; 5]vxnRkU= 6]Hkwrfo|k 7] “kykD;rU= vkSj 8]okthdj.krFkkjlk;uesa ,d izeq[k vaXkgS A bllEcU/k esalqJqrdkdFkugSfd “kY; og “kkL= gS] ftlesaukukizdkjdsr`.k] ik’kk.k] /kwy] Gksg] iRFkj] vfLFk] cky] u[k] iw;] L=ko] ew<xHkZ] vkfnd’VnsusokYks “kY; ,oamudksnwjdjus dh fof/k;ksadko.kZugksrkgSvkSj “kY;kgj.kesaiz;qDr ;U=] “kL=] {kkj] vfXuvkfndksiz;qDrdjus dh fof/k;ksarFkkoz.kdsgsrq]y{k.k]fPkfdRlkvkfndkfoLr`ro.kZugksrkgSA
ky kcn dh o qrifr
^”kY;* “kCn dh O;qRifr
  • “kkL=dkjksa us ^”kY;* ‘kCn dh O;qRifr]vFkZ ,oavfHkizk; dksfHkUu&fHkUuizdkjlsLi’Vfd;kgS]tksfuEuizdkjgS&
  • 1½^”kY;* mlsdgrsgS] fTklesaeuvkSj “kjhjdksd’Vigq¡prkgSAblizdkjGksg] r`.k] iw;] ew<xHkZ ,oa “kksd] fpUrkvkfnHkh “kY; dh gh Js.kh esavkrsgSA
  • 2½iqjkdky esaekuodksthou&j{kkFkZvusdizdkjdsladVksadklkeukdjukiM+rkFkkA ml dkyesaekuovkRej{kkFkZizk;( /kuq’kvkSjck.kdksç;ksxesaykrkFkkAfpfdRlkFkZvkusokys ,slsO;fŸkvf/kdgksrsFksftudkeuvkSj “kjhjck.kksadsvkÄkrksalsO;fFkrgksrkFkkAvr% lqJqr us ^”kY;* dh O;k[;k djrsgq, Li’Vfd;kfd “kh/kzrkiwoZdvkdjtkseudksd’Vigq¡pk;sog ^”kY;* dgykrkgSA
ky kkl dh iz kkurk
^”kY; “kkL= dh iz/kkurk*
  • vk;osZndsvkBksavaXkksaesa “kY;”kkL= dks ç/kkucryk;kx;kgSD;ksafdvkS’kf/k&fpfdRLkkvkfn dh vis{kk “kY;deZ }kjkvcqZn] v”kZ] v”kejhvkfnvusdjksxksals “kh/kzNqVdkjkik;ktkldrkgSA
  • nsofHk”kdvf”ouhdqekjksa }kjkfd;sx;s “kY;deZlEc/khpeRdkfjddk;Zdykiksa dh vk;qosZnh; lafgrk&xzUFkksaesavusdLFkyksaijppkZgS] ftulsjksfx;ksadksrqjUrykHkigqapkgSAnqcZyeukscyokysO;fDrvFkok “kL=deZdsd’VksadkslgudjusesavleFkZjksXkhHkh ;U=] {kkj] vfXuvkfndsiz;ksx }kjkjksXkeqDrfd;stkldrsgSaA
  • “kY;“kkL= blfy, HkhvU;ksa dh vis{kkJs’BgS] D;ksafd {kkj] “kL=] vfXu] tyksdkvkfndkjksXk&fuokj.kdsfy, eq[;r% mi;ksXkblh “kkL= esagSa] vU; esaughaA “kY; “kkL= blfy, HkhloZJs’BgSa] D;ksafd ;g “kk“oriq.;&nk;d] LoXkZLkn`“k] lq[knk;d] dhfrZnsusokyk] vk;qdks Ck<+kusokysvkSjthfodksiktZudjkusokykgSaaA
slide40

“kkL=h; çek.kksals “kY;fpfdRlkdkewylzksrosnksaesafeyrkgS] tgk¡ banz] vfXuvkSjlksensorkdscknLoxZds ;qxoS| vf”ouhdqekjksa dh x.kuk dh xbZgSA buds dk;ZfpfdRlk ,oa ‘kY;fpfdRlklaca/khnksuksaçdkjdsdk;ZfeyrsgSa ”kjhj dh O;kf/k;ksadksnwjdjusdsfy, rFkkvaxHkax dh fLFkfresauohuvka[ksa ,oauohuvaxçnkudjusdsfy, vf”ouhdqekjksa dh çkFkZuk dh xbZgSAxHkkZ”k; dksphjdjxHkZdksckgjfudkyusrFkkew=okfguh] ew=k”k; ,oao`Ddkasesa ;fn ew= #dkgks] rksmlsogk¡ ls “kY; deZ ;k vU; çdkjlsckgjfudkyusdkmYys[k feyrkgSA

blhçdkjvFkoZosnesa {kr] fonzf/k] oz.kVwVh ;k dVhvfLFk;ksadkstksM+us] dVsgq, vaxdksBhddjus] i`Fkd~ gq, ekaleTtkdksLoLFkdjusokyhvkS’kf/k lsçkFkZuk dh xbZgSAjDrlzkodsfy, iV~Vh ck¡/kus] viph ¼xys dh xazfFkdk ,d jksx½ dsfy, os/kuNsnuvkfnmipkjksadkmYys[k feyrkgSA

Hkxoku~ cq) dsdkyesathodukedfpfdRld }kjkdjksfV ,oamnjxrcM+s “kY;deZlQyrkiwoZdfd, tkusdko.kZugSAlqlqaxfBr ,oa “kkL=h; :ilsvk;qosZnh; “kY;fpfdRlk dh uhaobanzdsf”k’; /kUoarfj us MkyhA

/kUoarfjdsf”k’; lqJqr us bl “kkL= dkslokZaxksikaxfodflrdjO;ogkjksi;ksxhLo:ifn;kA ml le; Hkh “kY; dk {ks= lkekU; dkf;d “kY;fpfdRlkFkkvkSj Å/zot=qxrjksxksa ,oa “kY;deZ ¼vFkkZr~ us=jksx] uklk] daB] d.kZvkfndsjksx ,o rRlaca/kh “kY;deZ½ dkfopkjv’Vkaxk;qosZnds “kkykD; uked “kk[kkesai`Fkd~ :ilsfd;ktkrkFkkA

kkjlw fpfdrlk ifjp
{kkjlw= fpfdRlkifjp;
  • pjdds {kkj&lEcU/kho.kZuls ;g HkhizrhrgksrkgSfd ml dkyesaftlizdkjdk;fpfdRlk]/kkUoURkjh; fpfdRlkvkSjvfXudeZfpfdRlkvkSjvfXudeZfpfdRlkdjusokysfpfdRldvyx&vYkxgksrsFks] mlhizdkj {kkj }kjkfpfdRlkdjusokysfpfdRldksadkHkhi`FkdghlEiznk; FkkA;g ml dky dh {kkjfpfdRlk dh pjelhekdklwpdgSA

{kkjd`R;

  • tksjksx {kkjdsiz;ksxlsBhdgkstkrsgSaosa ^{kkjd`R;* dgykrsgSaA {kkjd`R; O;kf/k;ksaesaHkhtks “kwuxk=] vfLFk“kwG] v=}s”kh] gn; vkSjlfU/k&ihM+klsihfM+rgks] muesa {kkjdkiz;ksxughadjukpkfg,A {kkjdkiz;ksxjksx] nks’k] Cky] ek=k] dkyvkSjvfXu dh Hkyhizdkjijh{kkdjusokysfpfdRld dh ns[k&js[k esadjukpkfg,AmDrfpfdRlkçfØ;klsv“kZ~&HkxUnj(piles and fistula) dh pkdwjfgr “kY; fpfdRlk dh tkrhgSAblfof/k esavkS’k/kh; rRoksalsHkkforlw= dscka/kus ,oafijksuslsv“kZdVdjfxjtkrsgS ,oaHkxUnjds /kkofcukvfrfjDrejgeiV~VhdsLor% HkjtkrsgSrFkknqckjkmlhLFkkuijiqu% mRiUuughagksrsAbujksxksaesa ;g fof/k 99 çfr“krlQy “kY; fpfdRlkgSA ;g dkQhlLrh] çpfyr ,oalQyi)frgSA
slide42

\'ka[k ç{kkyufof/k Hkhvk;qosZn }kjknhxbZfpfdRlki)fr;ksaesals ,d gSftldsek/;e lsvkgkjuyh dh lQkbZ dh tkrhgSA

  • bldsbykoklw;ZueLdkjdkHkhgekjs\'kkL=ksaesafo\'kno.kZugSftldsek/;e lsdbZjksxksadsdhVk.kqu"VgksrsgSa] \'kjhjdksfoVkfeuMhvf/kdek=k esaçkIrgksrkgSrFkk \'kjhjesajDrlapkjrhozgkstkrkgSA
milagkj
milagkj
  • vk;qosZn us tgkajksx] jksxdsdkj.k] mRifr] y{k.kfunku ,oamipkjdko.kZufd;kgSoghanwljhvksjvk;qosZnesajksxhdkHkhoxZHksnfd;kx;kgSAvk;qosZndsvuqlkjjksxhnksçdkjdsgksrsgSaekufldjksxh ,oa \'kkjhfjdjksxhAvk;qosZnnksuksaghçdkjdsjksfx;ksadsmipkjdsfy, fofHkUufo/kkvksadkHkhmYys[k djrkgSAftuesa “kV~d.kZfpfdRlkftldkmijksDro.kZufd;kx;kgS] dslkFkghlw;Zfdj.kfpfdRlk] jlfpfdRlk] ikjkfpfdRlk] fo"kfpfdRlk] u{k= fpfdRlktSlsdbZi)fr;kagSftldkvk;qosZnesafoLr`ro.kZugSAbldsbykokvk/;kfRedfpfdRlkftlesa ;a= ea= o ra= dsek/;e lsHkhjksxhdksjksxeqDrdjusdkfo/kkuvk;qosZn \'kkL= esafd;kx;kgSAblçdkj ;ksxrFkkvk;qosZndklkeatL; euq"; dsleLrlk/;] d"Vlk/; o vlk/; rhuksaghçdkj dh HkkSfrd o v/;kfRedihM+klseqfDrçnku l{kegSA