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Change of location for class as of Monday Jan. 23. Odette Building room 112. Central Pattern Generators. Local circuits in the spinal cord Can control complex timing and coordination of complex movement patterns.

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central pattern generators
Central Pattern Generators
  • Local circuits in the spinal cord
  • Can control complex timing and coordination of complex movement patterns.
  • In cats, timing of movements is accomplished at the spinal cord level, but not support.
central pattern generators1
Central Pattern Generators
  • Each limb has its own cpg
  • Cpg’s are connected by local circuits
  • Cpg’s in humans, may have more regulatory input from upper motor neuron pathways.
lamprey cpg s
Lamprey cpg’s
  • Spinal cord innervates muscle segments
  • Identified mns in stereotyped positions
  • Intrinsic firing pattern
  • Know know nt’s, firing patterns, regulation of all components
  • Reciprocal inhibition across the spinal cord cause alternate sides to contract.
ch 16 upper motor neuron control
Ch. 16 Upper Motor Neuron Control
  • Posture: vestibular nuclei & reticular formation --> terminal zones in medial spinal cord.
  • Precise movements of distal parts of limbs: motor cortex --> terminal fields in the lateral parts of the spinal cord gray matter in a few spinal cord segments
upper motor neuron
Upper motor neuron
  • Gives rise to a descending projection that controls the activity of lower motor neurons in the brain stem and the spinal cord.
brainstem structures
Brainstem structures
  • Influence of lower motor neurons to neck muscles: superior colliculus axons project to medial cell groups in the cervical cord. These generate head orienting movements.
brainstem
Brainstem
  • Upper motor neurons for balance and posture
    • Vestibular nuclei are upper motor neurons with descending axons that terminate in the medial region of the spinal cord gray matter.
    • Information from cranial nerve VIII (inner ear)
pathways through vestibular nuclei
Pathways through vestibular nuclei
  • Cranial nerve VIII

--> vestibular nuclei

--> descending axons

--> Lateral vestibular tract: most terminate in medial region of spinal cord. OR

Medial vestibular tract: some extend laterally to contact muscles.

pathways through vestibular nuclei1
Pathways through vestibular nuclei
  • Also, pathways from upper motor neurons to lower motor neurons that control eye movements.
reticular formation
Reticular Formation
  • Network of circuits
  • Located at the brainstem core, from midbrain to medulla.
  • Descending motor control pathways to the spinal cord

- terminate primarily in the medial parts of the gray matter where they influence the local circuit neurons that co-ordinate axial and proximal limb muscles.

reticular formation functions
Reticular formation: functions
  • cardiovascular & respiratory control.
  • sensory motor reflexes
  • org. of eye movements
  • regulate sleep and wakefullness
  • * temporal and spatial co-ordination of movement
posture
Posture
  • In response to disturbances in body position (env or self)
    • -->Vestibular nuclei and reticular formation
    • --> information to the spinal cord
vestibular nuclei
Vestibular nuclei
  • response from inner ear to change in balance
  • Inner ear
  • Vestibular nuclei
  • Direct projections to the spinal cord
  • Compensation in stability
adjustments to stabilize posture during ongoing movements
Adjustments to stabilize posture during ongoing movements
  • Motor centers in cortex or brain stem
  • reticular formation
  • Appropriate neurons are activated
ad