Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics
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Ch 23: Understanding Diversity: Systematics. phylogeny systematics taxonomy taxon. How to categorize life? life vs. non-life (?prehistory) plants (non-motile) vs. animals (motile) Greek philosophers including Aristotle ( born 384 - died 322 BC ).

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phylogeny

systematics

taxonomy

taxon


How to categorize life?

life vs. non-life (?prehistory)

plants (non-motile) vs. animals (motile) Greek philosophers including Aristotle (born 384 - died 322 BC)


add Protista/Protoctista & sub-group Monera (Haeckel 1866)

prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic cells (Chatton 1937)


reorganized classification into 4 kingdoms (Copeland 1930s?)

5 kingdoms; adding Fungi

(Whittaker 1959)




-> 6 kingdoms (compromise) many others

still argued: Lake’s 4 domains,

Cavalier-Smith & others’ > 6 kingdoms


horizontal gene transfers many others

genome fusions

clades?



Homologous structures many others

18-14 modified leaves

18-13 terrestrial vertebrate forelimbs


Homoplasies = analogous structures many others

Australian marsupial “mole”

18-16 spiky plant parts

N American placental mole


Phenetics/evolutionary systematics many others

numerical taxonomy

eg: Birds -> different enough to be a separate class from reptiles


Cladistic systematics many others

clade

cladogram

synapomorphy vs. (sym)plesiomorphy

outgroup

parsimony

eg: Birds -> sub-group of Reptile class


Morphology many others


Morphology: Developmental data many others

eg: early animal embryo cleavage (30-5)


Biochemistry: Lipids many others

2 species of Pseudomonas


Biochemistry: Proteins many others

eg: Isozyme patterns from a fungus


Biochemistry: Proteins many others

eg: amino acid sequence comparison


Biochemistry: Proteins many others

eg: 3D structure comparison

myoglobin


Biochemistry: DNA many others

Sequence analysis

Relationships between canids using DNA sequences


Stoneking, et al. many others

Mitochondrial DNA study of humans



Other kinds of trees many others

Phylogram - shows genetic change

Ultrametric tree - shows time


Methods of generating trees many others

Distance

Parsimony

Maximum likelihood


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