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Ch 23: Understanding Diversity: Systematics. phylogeny systematics taxonomy taxon. How to categorize life? life vs. non-life (?prehistory) plants (non-motile) vs. animals (motile) Greek philosophers including Aristotle ( born 384 - died 322 BC ).

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Ch 23: Understanding Diversity: Systematics

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Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

phylogeny

systematics

taxonomy

taxon


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

How to categorize life?

life vs. non-life (?prehistory)

plants (non-motile) vs. animals (motile) Greek philosophers including Aristotle (born 384 - died 322 BC)


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

add Protista/Protoctista & sub-group Monera (Haeckel 1866)

prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic cells (Chatton 1937)


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

reorganized classification into 4 kingdoms (Copeland 1930s?)

5 kingdoms; adding Fungi

(Whittaker 1959)




Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

-> 6 kingdoms (compromise) many others

still argued: Lake’s 4 domains,

Cavalier-Smith & others’ > 6 kingdoms


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

horizontal gene transfers many others

genome fusions

clades?



Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Homologous structures many others

18-14 modified leaves

18-13 terrestrial vertebrate forelimbs


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Homoplasies = analogous structures many others

Australian marsupial “mole”

18-16 spiky plant parts

N American placental mole


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Phenetics/evolutionary systematics many others

numerical taxonomy

eg: Birds -> different enough to be a separate class from reptiles


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Cladistic systematics many others

clade

cladogram

synapomorphy vs. (sym)plesiomorphy

outgroup

parsimony

eg: Birds -> sub-group of Reptile class


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Morphology many others


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Morphology: Developmental data many others

eg: early animal embryo cleavage (30-5)


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Biochemistry: Lipids many others

2 species of Pseudomonas


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Biochemistry: Proteins many others

eg: Isozyme patterns from a fungus


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Biochemistry: Proteins many others

eg: amino acid sequence comparison


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Biochemistry: Proteins many others

eg: 3D structure comparison

myoglobin


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Biochemistry: DNA many others

Sequence analysis

Relationships between canids using DNA sequences


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Stoneking, et al. many others

Mitochondrial DNA study of humans



Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Other kinds of trees many others

Phylogram - shows genetic change

Ultrametric tree - shows time


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Methods of generating trees many others

Distance

Parsimony

Maximum likelihood


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