Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics
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Ch 23: Understanding Diversity: Systematics. phylogeny systematics taxonomy taxon. How to categorize life? life vs. non-life (?prehistory) plants (non-motile) vs. animals (motile) Greek philosophers including Aristotle ( born 384 - died 322 BC ).

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Ch 23: Understanding Diversity: Systematics

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Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Ch 23: Understanding Diversity: Systematics


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

phylogeny

systematics

taxonomy

taxon


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

How to categorize life?

life vs. non-life (?prehistory)

plants (non-motile) vs. animals (motile) Greek philosophers including Aristotle (born 384 - died 322 BC)


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

add Protista/Protoctista & sub-group Monera (Haeckel 1866)

prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic cells (Chatton 1937)


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

reorganized classification into 4 kingdoms (Copeland 1930s?)

5 kingdoms; adding Fungi

(Whittaker 1959)


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

3 domains (Carl Woese 1977)

Carol J. Bult


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

further elaborated by Mitchell Sogin (early eukaryotes) & many others


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

-> 6 kingdoms (compromise)

still argued: Lake’s 4 domains,

Cavalier-Smith & others’ > 6 kingdoms


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

horizontal gene transfers

genome fusions

clades?


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Groups of organisms on a phylogenetic tree

(excluded)


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Homologous structures

18-14 modified leaves

18-13 terrestrial vertebrate forelimbs


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Homoplasies = analogous structures

Australian marsupial “mole”

18-16 spiky plant parts

N American placental mole


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Phenetics/evolutionary systematics

numerical taxonomy

eg: Birds -> different enough to be a separate class from reptiles


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Cladistic systematics

clade

cladogram

synapomorphy vs. (sym)plesiomorphy

outgroup

parsimony

eg: Birds -> sub-group of Reptile class


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Morphology


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Morphology: Developmental data

eg: early animal embryo cleavage (30-5)


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Biochemistry: Lipids

2 species of Pseudomonas


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Biochemistry: Proteins

eg: Isozyme patterns from a fungus


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Biochemistry: Proteins

eg: amino acid sequence comparison


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Biochemistry: Proteins

eg: 3D structure comparison

myoglobin


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Biochemistry: DNA

Sequence analysis

Relationships between canids using DNA sequences


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Stoneking, et al.

Mitochondrial DNA study of humans


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

2 representations of the same data


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Other kinds of trees

Phylogram - shows genetic change

Ultrametric tree - shows time


Ch 23 understanding diversity systematics

Methods of generating trees

Distance

Parsimony

Maximum likelihood


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