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Medieval Europe “Middle Ages” Medieval Times 500-1500 AD. The 3 Periods of the Middle Ages. Early Middle Ages : 500 – 1000 High Middle Ages : 1000 – 1250 Late Middle Ages : 1250 - 1500. TEACHER NOTES:.

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Medieval Europe “Middle Ages” Medieval Times 500-1500 AD

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Medieval Europe “Middle Ages”Medieval Times500-1500 AD


The 3 Periods of the Middle Ages

Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000

High Middle Ages: 1000 – 1250

Late Middle Ages: 1250 - 1500


TEACHER NOTES:

  • After Charlemagne's death, Magyar, Muslim, and Viking invaders caused the break-up of the empire. As central governments collapsed, people sought local sources of safety and security. This led to a new political and social system called feudalism and a new economic system that was based around life on a manor. Feudalism was based on a hierarchy of relationships between lords and the vassals who took an oath to fight for their lords. In exchange for fighting, vassals received parcels of land, called fiefs. Women remained subordinate to men in many respects, but a growing number oversaw large households and complex finances while men were away at war.


ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY

  • feudalisma political and social system in which a powerful lord offered protection to a vassal in return for military service

  • vassala man who served a lord in a military capacity

  • fiefland given to a vassal by a lord

  • manoran agricultural estate run by a lord and worked by peasants

  • serfa peasant legally bound to the land

  • NoblePossessing hereditary rank in a political system or social class derived from a feudalistic stage of a country's development.

  • Catholic Churchworld's largest Christian church Led by the Pope & spreads the gospel of Jesus Christ.


The sacking of Rome in A.D. 476 bringing an end to the Western Roman Empire.


QUESTION FOR STUDENTS…

  • If the USA was conquered by another COUNTRY and the American government no longer exist,

  • How would you protect yourself from other people?

  • How would you protect from further invasion?

  • What other problems might arise?

  • Power Vacuum…

  • an expression for a condition that exists when someone losses control of something and no one has replaced them. Usually used in a political situation that can occur when a government has no central authority. Like a physical vacuum, other forces will tend to "rush in" to fill the vacuum as soon as it is created, in the form of an armed militia or insurgents, military coup, warlord or dictator.


Europe in the 6c


Feudalism

A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service.


The Medieval Manor


SERF vs. PEASANT

Serfs were bound to the manor.

They were not slaves. These people could not be bought and sold. Serfs could not leave the manor without permission. If they did not work, they were punished. If the manor land was sold or reassigned to a new owner, the serfs stayed with the land. Serfs had many jobs on the manor including craftsmen, bakers, farmers, and tax collectors - serfs did all kinds of jobs. Their job was assigned.

Peasants were free to leave if they wished.

Peasants worked the land and made the goods in exchange for protection. They might own their own business or have room enough for garden of their own. Other than that, their life was just like a serf's life. A few peasants escaped the hard work on the farm by joining the church. But most lived and died on the manor where they were born.


Magna Carta, 1215

  • King John I

  • Runnymeade

  • “Great Charter”

  • monarchs were not above the law.

  • kings had to consult a council of advisors.

  • kings could not tax arbitrarily.


Clovis– First powerful Frankish king. His most significant achievement was that he converted the Franks to Catholic Christianity, thereby gaining support of the pope and of the region’s large Christian population. Clovis created a powerful Frankish kingdom.

During the 600s and 700s, the Frankish Kings lost their power to powerful nobles called theMayor of the Palace, who were the chief officers of the king.


  • During the 600s and 700s, the Frankish Kings lost their power to powerful nobles called theMayor of the Palace, who were the chief officers of the king.

Charles Martel was succeeded as mayor of the palace by his son Pepin, often called Pepin The Short.


Charles Martel, as Mayor of the Palace, led the Frankish army that defeated the invading Muslims at the Battle of Tours (732).This battle ended the Moslem attempt to conquer Christian Europe.


Charlemagne: 742 to 814

Under the rule of Charlemagne, the Frankish kingdom enjoyed a golden age. Charlemagne extended the borders of his kingdom. He set up an efficient government and encouraged learning throughout his vast empire. The revival of learning helped set the stage for the civilization of the later Middle Ages.


Pope Crowned CharlemagneHoly Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800


Charlemagne’s Empire


Church Becomes a Force In Europe

  • Christian Church has become an important political, economic, spiritual and cultural force in Europe

  • Leading officials of Church were the Pope and Patriarch

  • Banning of heresy (holding beliefs that contradict the official religion)

  • conversion by force

  • Eventually in 11th Century, Church split into two independent branches Eastern Orthodox based in Constantinople and Roman Catholic in Rome


The Medieval Catholic Church

  • filled the power vacuum left from the collapse of the Roman world.

  • monasticism:

    • St. Benedict – Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience.

    • provided schools for the children of the upper class.

    • inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war.

    • libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts.

    • monks  missionaries to the barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface]


The Power of the Medieval Church

  • the church controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe.

  • Feudal Warfare  only 40 days a year

    for combat.

  • curb heresies  crusades; Inquisition

  • tithe  1/10 tax on your assets given to the church.

  • Peter’s Pence  1 penny per person [paid by the peasants].


Monasticism and Saints

  • Monks were people who gave up worldly possessions and devote themselves to a religious life

  • Established between 400 -700 communities called monasteries which became centers of education, literacy and learning

  • Strict codes of monastic conduct called Rule of St. Benedict

  • Saints- one who performs miracles that are interpreted as evidence of a special relationship with God

  • St. Augustine- wrote “Confessions” which discussed ideas of ethics, self knowledge, and the role of free will which shaped monastic tradition and the influence of Church


Religious communities

monasteries- (men) monks

Convents- (women) nuns devote their “LIVES” to God!

Benedict – 500’s wrote first “code” (rules) for monks- Benedictine Rule

Abbot – head monk:

Monks> pray for most of the day Farm Study (copied books by hand)

Make wine , crafts , Medicines


Charlemagne’s Empire Collapses:Treaty of Verdun, 843


  • The majority of the population was made up of peasant farmers known as serfs. Their job was to work the land and give most of their harvest to the King in exchange for protection.


Chivalry: A Code of Honor and Behavior


As Feudal warfaredeclined Chivalryemerged. It was a code of conduct for Knights. Chivalry emphasized Christian virtues, generosity, loyalty, and respect for noblewomen.


Troubadours, or wandering poets adopted the ideas of chivalry. They praised the perfection, beauty, and wit of women throughout the ages. These ideas of chivalry would later come to shape the modern ideas of Romantic love.


The Medieval Church


The Medieval Catholic Church

  • filled the power vacuum left from the collapse of the classical world.

  • monasticism:

    • St. Benedict – Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience.

    • provided schools for the children of the upper class.

    • inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war.

    • libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts.

    • monks  missionaries to the barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface]


The Power of the Medieval Church

  • bishops and abbots played a large part in the feudal system.

  • the church controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe.

  • tried to curb feudal warfare  only 40 days a year for combat.

  • curb heresies  crusades; Inquisition

  • tithe  1/10 tax on your assets given to the church.

  • Peter’s Pence  1 penny per person [paid by the peasants].


A Medieval Monk’s Day


A Medieval Monastery: The Scriptorium


Attacking a Castle

  • Castle technology had advanced to such a degree by the 12th and 13th centuries that new methods of attack had to be designed. Two hundred years before the invention of canon. Seige engines such as catapults and trebuchets were two common machines.


The Road to Knighthood

KNIGHT

SQUIRE

PAGE


The

"Renaissance"

of the 12c


William the Conqueror:Battle of Hastings, 1066(Bayeaux Tapestry)


Evolution of England’s Political System

  • Henry I:

    • William’s son.

    • set up a court system.

    • Exchequer dept. of royal finances.

  • Henry II:

    • established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom.

    • grand jury.

    • trial by jury.


Evolution of England’s Political System

  • Henry I:

    • William’s son.

    • set up a court system.

    • Exchequer dept. of royal finances.

  • Henry II:

    • established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom.

    • grand jury.

    • trial by jury.


The Beginnings of the British Parliament

  • Great Council:

    • middle class merchants, townspeople [burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr., burghers in Ger.] were added at the end of the 13c.

    • eventually called Parliament.

    • by 1400, two chambers evolved:

      • House of Lords  nobles & clergy.

      • House of Commons  knights and burgesses.


The Rise of European Monarchies: France


Gothic Architectural Style

  • Pointed arches.

  • High, narrow vaults.

  • Thinner walls.

  • Flying buttresses.

  • Elaborate, ornate, airier interiors.

  • Stained-glass windows.

“Flying” Buttresses


Pope Urban II: Preaching a Crusade


Setting Out on Crusade

King Richard the Lionheart of England


Christian Crusades: East and West


Oxford University


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