History of translation
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History of Translation. A look at where the Bible came from and other cool stuff along the way…. Blessed is the one
    who does not walk in step with the wicked
or stand in the way that sinners take
    or sit in the company of mockers ,

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History of Translation

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History of translation

History of Translation

A look at where the Bible came from and other cool stuff along the way…


History of translation

Blessed is the one
    who does not walk in step with the wicked
or stand in the way that sinners take
    or sit in the company of mockers,

but whose delight is in the law of the Lord,
    and who meditates on his law day and night.

That person is like a tree planted by streams of water,
    which yields its fruit in season
and whose leaf does not wither—
    whatever they do prospers.

-Psalm 1:1-3


History of translation

For everything that was written in the past was written to teach us, so that through the endurance taught in the Scriptures and the encouragement they provide we might have hope.

-Romans 15:4


History of translation

All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness,so that the servant of God may be thoroughly equipped for every good work.

-2 Timothy 3:16-17


Who wrote the bible

History & Context

When was it finished?

Who Wrote the Bible?


Septuagint

Septuagint

Original scriptures were written in Hebrew, Aramaic & Greek. The Septuagint was the first known work of translation, creating a Greek version of the OT texts


Septuagint1

Septuagint

Around the 2nd Century BCE, a group of around 70 (LXX) Jewish scholars produced a copy of the Hebrew Scriptures into Koine Greek known as the Septuagint, or the “translation of seventy interpreters.”

This is the translation used by the NT writers when quoting OT material, which partially explains differences between NT quotations and the OT references as we read them today. Mainstream Judaism later rejected the translation in favor of the traditional Hebrew text, seeking to solidify distinctions between themselves and the new Christian movement.


Canonizatoin

Canonizatoin

Jewish canon (Torah + Nevim + Ketuvim) believed to have been finalized by 90 CE.

Christian canon agreed upon at Council of Nicea, 325 CE.

*James, 2 Peter, 2-3 John, & Jude were excluded by many early Christian communities. Some also wanted to include books such as Shepherd of Hermas, Epistle of Barnabas, & Apocalypse of Peter


Jewish scripture 24 books

Jewish Scripture (24 Books)

Torah

Prophets

Joshua

Judges

Samuel (1-2)

Kings (1-2)

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Ezekiel

“The Twelve”

(Minor Prophets)

Writings

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Psalms

Proverbs

Job

Song of Songs

Ruth

Lamentations

Ecclesiastes

Esther

Daniel

Ezra-Nehemiah

Chronicles (1-2)


Protestant ot 39 books

Protestant OT (39 Books)

Pentateuch

Historical/Poetic

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1-2 Samuel

1-2 Kings

1-2 Chronicles

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Songs

Prophets

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy


Catholic ot 46 books

Catholic OT (46 Books)

Pentateuch

Historical/Wisdom

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1-2 Samuel

1-2 Kings

1-2 Chronicles

Ezra

Nehemiah

Tobit

Judith

Esther (+ additions)

1-2 Maccabees

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Songs

Wisdom of Solomon

Sirach

Prophetic Books

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Baruch

Ezekiel

Daniel (+ additions)

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi


Orthodox ot 52 books

Orthodox OT (52 books)

Historical

Poetic/Didactic

Psalms (+ Ps 151)

Job

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Songs

Wisdom of Solomon

Sirach

Prophetic Books

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1-4 Kingdoms

(Samuel & Kings)

1-2 Chronicles

1 Esdras

2 Esdras (Ezra)

Nehemiah

Esther (+ additions)

Judith

Tobit

1-3 Maccabbees

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Baruch

Ezekiel

Daniel (+ additions)

4 Maccabbees

Prayer of Manasseh

3 Esdras


Latin vulgate

Latin Vulgate

Produced largely due to the work of St Jerome under the commissioning of Pope Damasus I in the 4th Century CE.

He used Greek translations & available Hebrew & Aramaic texts to produce scriptures in language accessible to common readers (i.e. Latin).


Vulgate

Vulgate

By the 13th Century CE, it had become the “commonly used translation,” or versiovulgata. It became the most widely used version of the text in the Catholic church.

It wasn’t until the Reformation in the 1500s that Protestant churches once again made an effort to put the scriptures in the hands of the people by translating it into a language they could understand.

The rise of scholasticism and the printing press enabled bible translation to broaden.


Modern translations

Modern Translations

Formal Equivalence – word for word; helpful in Bible study, can be difficult to read from due to awkward sentence structure, etc.

Dynamic Equivalence – thought for thought; helpful in personal and group reading, can lack clarity regarding original intention of authors.

All translators have to make choices when dealing with nuances in meaning not readily passed from one language to another. Each translation falls somewhere on the continuum between formal equivalence and dynamic equivalence.


Questions

Application

Questions

How does this shape the way you think of the Bible?

What does it mean that the Bible is scripture?

What does it mean that the Bible is authoritative?

How do we read and interpret the Bible faithfully?


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