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c h a p t e r. 2. The Analyst as a Project Manager. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE. PROJECT PLANNING SYSTEMS ANALYSIS SYSTEM DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION SUPPORT / PRODUCTION & MAINTENANCE *. Planning Phase. Define the problem Sketch out a schedule Determine feasibility

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C h a p t e r

c h a p t e r

2

The Analyst as a Project Manager


System development life cycle

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE

  • PROJECT PLANNING

  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

  • SYSTEM DESIGN

  • IMPLEMENTATION

  • SUPPORT / PRODUCTION & MAINTENANCE

    *


Planning phase

Planning Phase

  • Define the problem

  • Sketch out a schedule

  • Determine feasibility

  • Confirm other resources: staff, $$, management support etc.


Feasibility

FEASIBILITY

  • TECHNICAL:

    • Assess Hardware, Software, Technical, $$$ Resources

  • UNDERSTANDING BUSINESS VALUE OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS:

    • Financial Considerations:

      • Tangible Benefits: Cost reduction, increased operational efficiency, cost/benifit

      • NPV, Beak even, payback method, ROI, NPV, cash flow etc.,

    • Non-Financial / Strategic Considerations

      • Better service, speed, quality, implementation time etc.

      • Score carding, Portfolio Analysis

  • Can we and do we want to Implement Change?


Analysis phase

Analysis Phase

  • What problem is the organization trying to solve with IS?

    • What are the symptoms / causes?

  • Gather INFO & determine CFS/KSF for IS:

    • Small #, easily identifiable goals

    • Shaped by manager, customers, competitors, users etc.

  • What / who / why requires information?

  • Define system requirements

    • e.g. processing requirements

  • Prototype to help define requirements

  • Generate alternatives: buy, build outsource etc.

  • Compare alternatives and feasibility

  • Make recommendations with management


Design phase

Design Phase

  • Design network of Hardware O/S, etc.

  • Design application architecture

    • Large portion of the project

  • Design user interface (prototype?)

  • Design system interfaces/middleware

  • Design and integrate DBMS

  • Prototype if further details needed

  • Design and integrate system controls / security

  • As the project is planned it may cause you to loop back and go to the analysis mode to gather more information

  • Ripple effect


Implementation phase

Implementation Phase

  • The phase where the new system is programmed

  • Construct software components

  • Verify and test

  • Convert existing data

  • Train users

  • Convert to the new system


Testing

TESTING

  • UNIT TESTING: Tests Each Unit Separately

  • SYSTEM TESTING: Do Modules Function Together as planned?

  • Acceptance Testing

    • Alpha Testing: limited rollout.

    • Beta Testing: more widespread rollout.

      • E.g., Windows 2000

        *


Support maintain upgrade phase

Support/maintain/upgrade Phase

  • Maintain (bug fix)

  • Enhancements/features/upgrades

  • Support for the users


A few more terms

A few more terms

  • Proof of concept prototype

    • A document containing business benefits and system capabilities of the projects

    • Helps to define the scope of a new project

  • Context diagram:

    • a graphical diagram showing the scope of a system. Who / what / why / what for uses of info

  • MS project

    • Work breakdown structure

    • Gantt Chart

    • Pert/CPM (Project evaluation and review technique / critical path method)


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